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Sport in the Media Presentation
Transcript of Sport in the Media Presentation
Nike is one of the most well known brands in the world.
Nike was recognised as the patriarch of all sports brands (ruling brand).
Nike has a big influence on other sports brands
For Nike the voice of the brand is articled as "Just do it" stories.
Nike's parent-brand is the men's brand and defines the sub-brands.
In 1990 the women's sub-brand came to the market. This is problematic because the men's brand is defined by it's masculine emotion and promise with signifiers such as sweating and muscular male athletes. The female storytelling in the women's sub-brand was a definite source of tension.
(Grow, 2008). What is Semiotics? Signifier's - tying hair up, long hair, pout in the mirror, earrings, necklace, make-up, tennis dress, cleavage, fitted clothing, cat walk, theme song 'I Feel Pretty', grunt, strong forehand return.
Signified - Maria Sharapova is not just pretty but has great strength and power in her sport.
Denotation - Maria Sharapova is strong and pretty
"I Feel Pretty" Gender Discourse Analysis Discourse - the production of knowledge through language, that shape and influence what we think and do. (Hall, 1997)
when revealing discourse(s), it's important to consider the broader features of the sport we consume through the media. (Kennedy & Hills, 2009)
Connotation - The inferred meaning of something (2nd order representation). Links to 'myth' in the way of decoding the cultural and social implications of the information. (Barthes, 1967)
Myth - is the creation of ideas (our understanding of the wider cultural contexts) inferred through connotations. (Kennedy & Hills, 2009) References Barthes, R. (1967). Elements of semiology. New York: Hill and Yang.
Coakley, J. (2009). Sport in society: Issues and controversies (10th Edition). New York: McGraw Hill.
Duncan, M. C., & Messner, M. A. (2005). Gender in televised sports: News and highlights shows, 1989 - 2004. Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los-Angeles. Retrieved 12th March, 2013, From http://www.la84foundation.org/9arr/ResearchReports/tv2004.pdf
Duncan, M. C., & Messner, M. A. (1998) The media image of sport and gender. In Lawrence A. W, (Ed), MediaSport (pp. 170-185). New York: Routledge.
Gratton, C., & Jones, J. (2010). Research Methods for Sports Studies (2nd Edition), New York: Routledge.
Grow, J. M. (2008). The gender of branding: Early nike women's advertising a feminist antenarrative. Women's Studies in Communication, 31, 312-343.
Hall, S. (1997). Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices. London: SAGE Publications.
Kennedy, E., & Hills, L. (2009). Sport, media and society. Oxford: Berg
Lucas, S. (2000). Nikes commercial solution: Girls, sneakers and salvation. International Review For The Sociology of Sport, 45, 149-164.
SportsPG. (2013). The richest female pro tennis player 2012. Retrieved 13th March, 2013, from http://sportspg.com/the-richest-female-pro-tennis-player-2012 Branding + Gender “Using a specific media article to illustrate your analysis critically discuss; how can Branding and Gender be used to make sense of the contemporary sports media?” Maria Sharapova is a Russian professional tennis player.
Labelled the richest female tennis player of 2012 earning approximately £27.1 million.
Involved in many modelling assignments including Nike.
The Nike deal was the biggest in the history of women's tennis
(SportsPG, 2013) About Maria Sharapova A symbol, sound, image,
letter that represents an underlying meaning or concept Signified Denotation =
1st order representation Signifier Sign Semiotics of Sharapova Commercial Is one of two ways that we analyse the messages we receive in society and through the media.
Semiotics brings meaning to the signs around us through the focus of language and linguistics (Structure of language).
Semiotic analysis requires a step by step deconstruction of the information.
(Kennedy & Hills, 2009) The concept that a signifier denotes Discourse Analysis of Sharapova's Commercial Function of commercial -
To empower female athletes in the way of demonstrating their experiences. (Grow, 2008)
To promote the female Nike merchandise
Broader social contexts -
Hegemony - women should be feminine (Coakley, 2009)
Women's participation in sport questioned (Lucas, 2000)
Conditions in which it was constructed -
To be known as a brand that supports female athletes (Lucas, 2000)
To gain money/profit
Connotation - Feminine female athletes should not be strong and powerful in their sport. Branding The Nike advertisements function as living stories showing female experiences and providing the audience with "emotional promises" of empowerment and community that offer a sense of "reality" (Grow, 2008)
Not just about money...
Nike followed reebok in the move towards female consumers and are recognised as important for empowering female participation in sport. (Lucas, 2000)
Early Nike women's advertising resisted hegemonic notions of femininity by representing too much female human truth. These adverts did not receive great support from the public and were seen as pinkifying the masculine Nike parent brand. (Grow, 2008)
Although Nike intends to empower female athletes and share their experiences in order to inspire them to participate, the women's sub-brand is constrained by the social constructions of gender in sports. (Grow, 2008) Under represented in the media (Duncan & Messner 2005)
Female appropriate sports focused on (ie. Tennis, Gymnastics)
Sexualised - femininity favoured over athleticism (Duncan & Messner, 1998)
Sport is made by men for men - masculinity frames athleticism (Coakley, 2009)
No wonder storytelling (adverts) has a gender component, developing from existing social constraints. (Grow, 2008)
Organizations are contaminated by gendered social constructions (Hegemony). gender ideologies are reproduced in organizations. In the patriarchal world of sport, which define Nike as an organization/brand, there is a social order that further constrains women by favouring femininity over athleticism. (Grow, 2008)
Although Tennis is socially accepted as a female appropriate sport, because femininity is privileged over athleticism, gender discourses will continue to influence the media and the way in which female tennis players are portrayed. Branding Sharapova's Commercial is contradictory – provides a campaign that demonstrates female tennis players have physical and skilled abilities, however is undermined by hegemonic discourse within the text and subtext.
Despite the support that the ad provides for female sports participation, the theme song, “I feel pretty” alongside Sharapova looking rather feminine focuses attention on her physical appearance, therefore steering away from her physical ability.
Also the whole of Wimbledon was silenced at Sharapova’s return serve shot. This suggests that it is unusual for a woman to look so feminine, yet possess such strength and power, which are typical masculine traits.
Nike has a commercial solution according to Lucas (2000). The solution is, Girls should be encouraged to participate in sports, as long as it is within a climate of constraints that direct them towards particular sports and certain styles of play. Even better when wearing Nike merchandise,
The solution both appeals to the public opinion through provocative and feminine adverts/images and to Nike through the selling of products and the recognition for representing females.