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Ethics in Photojournalism

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Nikki Bautista

on 26 April 2016

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Transcript of Ethics in Photojournalism

Ethics in Photojournalism
What is the real story?
Staging
Bias by Spin
Bias
Representation


Omission
Word Choice
Selection of Stories and Placement
Context
Stereotyping
Context, Stereotyping, and Bias
Be accurate and comprehensive in the representation of subjects.
It was a composite of 2 photos.
Photographer Brian Walski was dismissed two days later.
Image 1 Image 2
If there’s one war image that’s so common it’s become a cliché, it’s a child’s toy conveniently discovered at the bottom of a pile of bomb-blasted rubble
Resist being manipulated by staged photo opportunities.
March 2003: During Gulf War II, the Los Angeles Times ran the photo on top on its front page on March 31.
LA Times statement issued April 3
Editor's Note
On Monday, March 31, the Los Angeles Times published a front-page photograph that had been altered in violation of Times policy.

The primary subject of the photo was a British soldier directing Iraqi civilians to take cover from Iraqi fire on the outskirts of Basra. After publication, it was noticed that several civilians in the background appear twice. The photographer, Brian Walski, reached by telephone in southern Iraq, acknowledged that he had used his computer to combine elements of two photographs, taken moments apart, in order to improve the composition.

Times policy forbids altering the content of news photographs. Because of the violation, Walski, a Times photographer since 1998, has been dismissed from the staff.
— a toy that always seems to have miraculously avoided the dust and debris around it.
These are just four of the images found by SlubLog and shot during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, three by the same photographer.
Identifying Media Bias

Omission
– leaving one side out of an article or a series of articles over a period of time.
Selection of Sources
– including more sources that support one view over another.
Story Selection
– a pattern of highlighting news stories that support one side of an issue over another.
Placement
– the location in the paper or article where a story or event is printed; a pattern of placing news stories so as to downplay information supportive of one side.
Labeling
– comes in two forms: 1. Tagging of person from one party or group with extreme labels while leaving the other side unlabeled or with more mild labels. 2. A reporter not only fails to identify a liberal or conservative as such, but also describes the person or group with positive labels, such as “an expert” or “independent consumer group”.
Spin
– occurs when the story has only one interpretation of an event or policy, to the exclusion of the other. Spin involves tone- a reporter’s subjective comments about objective facts.
How you frame the story
changes the story.
Recognize and work to avoid presenting one’s own biases in the work.
How do you think the photographer or news organization thinks about Donald Trump?
Identifying Media Bias

Omission
– leaving one side out of an article or a series of articles over a period of time.
Selection of Sources
– including more sources that support one view over another.
Story Selection
– a pattern of highlighting news stories that support one side of an issue over another.
Placement
– the location in the paper or article where a story or event is printed; a pattern of placing news stories so as to downplay information supportive of one side.
Labeling
– comes in two forms: 1. Tagging of person from one party or group with extreme labels while leaving the other side unlabeled or with more mild labels. 2. A reporter not only fails to identify a liberal or conservative as such, but also describes the person or group with positive labels, such as “an expert” or “independent consumer group”.
Spin
– occurs when the story has only one interpretation of an event or policy, to the exclusion of the other. Spin involves tone- a reporter’s subjective comments about objective facts.
Avoid stereotyping individuals and groups.
Identifying Media Bias

Omission
– leaving one side out of an article or a series of articles over a period of time.
Selection of Sources
– including more sources that support one view over another.
Story Selection
– a pattern of highlighting news stories that support one side of an issue over another.
Placement
– the location in the paper or article where a story or event is printed; a pattern of placing news stories so as to downplay information supportive of one side.
Labeling
– comes in two forms: 1. Tagging of person from one party or group with extreme labels while leaving the other side unlabeled or with more mild labels. 2. A reporter not only fails to identify a liberal or conservative as such, but also describes the person or group with positive labels, such as “an expert” or “independent consumer group”.
Spin
– occurs when the story has only one interpretation of an event or policy, to the exclusion of the other. Spin involves tone- a reporter’s subjective comments about objective facts.
Be complete and provide context when photographing or recording subjects.
Tag line: The Mini Automatic. For Simple Driving.
While all stereotypes are generalizations, not all generalizations are stereotypes. Stereotypes are oversimplifications of people groups widely circulated in certain societies.





Jews--
Asians--
Mexicans--
Germans--
How do you think the photographer or news organization thinks about Donald Trump?
By Alex Griswold, July 13, 2015 Mediaite

The Huffington Post is taking the unusual step of removing any Donald Trump coverage from its politics portal, and moving it to the entertainment section.

"After watching and listening to Donald Trump since he announced his candidacy for president, we have decided we won't report on Trump's campaign as part of The Huffington Post's political coverage," writes HuffPo editor Danny Shea and Washington bureau chief Ryan Grim. "Instead, we will cover his campaign as part of our Entertainment section."

Read More: http://www.mediaite.com

‏@TelegraphNews
Donald Trump says Mexicans are 'killing us' in latest inflammatory speech http://tgr.ph/1NXiR5W

http://www.salon.com/
Bias by Omission

How many ways are there to tell the same story?
The New York Times
3/11/2003


Iraq forces suspension of U.S. surveillance flights

UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) -Iraqi fighter jets threatened two American U-2 surveillance planes, forcing them to return to abort their mission and return to base, senior U.S. officials said Tuesday.
USA Today
3/11/2003
U.N. Withdraws U-2 Planes

WASHINGTON (AP)-U.N. arms inspectors said Tuesday they had withdrawn two U-2 reconnaissance planes over Iraq for safety reasons after Baghdad complained both aircraft were in the air simultaneously.
Includes more sources that support one view over another.
This can be found when reporters use such phrases as “experts believe” or “observers say” or most people believe.”
Look for equal representation of both sides (or lack of it) to find this type of bias.

A pattern of highlighting news stories that agree with the agenda of the left or right, and ignoring the other side.
To identify this bias, one needs to be aware of both the left and the rights perspective.

There are two types of labeling- one in which one side of the political spectrum is given an extreme label, while the other side is not addressed with a label or given a more mild label.
The other type is when one side is given a label, and the other is identified as an “expert” or “independent group.”
When looking for this type of bias, remember labeling in and of itself is not bias. It is when one side is labeled and the other is not.

Spin occurs when a story only has one interpretation of an event or policy.
The reporter gives subjective comments about objective facts.
Making one ideological side look better than another.
To identify this type of bias, look for which perspective a news story matches- liberal or conservative.

Selection of Sources
Where did these reporters get their story?

Bias by omission is often associated with political news stories. Sometimes the media reports a story from a liberal political viewpoint, neglecting to include facts that support a conservative point of view. Or perhaps the media reports a story from a conservative political viewpoint, without including facts that support a liberal point of view.
We all want the same things in life. We want freedom; we want the chance for prosperity; we want as few people suffering as possible; we want healthy children; we want to have crime-free streets. The argument is how to achieve them…
Liberals believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all. It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties and individual and human rights. Believe the role of the government should be to guarantee that no one is in need. Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve problems.
Conservatives believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense. Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their own goals. Conservative policies generally emphasize empowerment of the individual to solve problems.

Story placement is a measure of how important the editor considers a story.
Many people only read the headlines, and therefore only see the larger stories.
To identify this type of bias, look for where a newspaper places political stories
Newspaper stories are usually written in a "pyramid" style -- that is, the most important facts are supposed to appear early in the story, with each paragraph a little less important than the previous paragraph. Newspapers use that style for two reasons:
(a) so that editors, editing a story to fit the available space, can cut from the bottom up, and
(b) so that the average reader will get the most important facts.
Editors know that, the farther down you go in a news story, the fewer readers you have.
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