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Nurture and Nurture (EdK.Read)

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by

B Clarke

on 10 November 2016

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Transcript of Nurture and Nurture (EdK.Read)

-many factors in your environment influence your development

-Can you think of examples of how your environment (people, places, opportunities) has shaped you?

-
Nurture
Nurture
-1950s
-Aaron Stern's experiment to prove that the right environment could create a genius
-used his daughter, Edith
-played her classical music, flash cards from infancy
-read whole encyclopedia by 5
-PhD by 18
-does this prove his theory correct?
-Why / why not?
Edith Experiment
-people study twins to help them understand heredity

-numerous studies of twins seperated at birth and raised apart - see how much of twins' similarities are based on genetics

-The "Jim Twins"
From BBC "The
Secret Life of
Twins" 1999
Twin Studies
-Romanian government used to house all orphans in large institutions.
-This study convinced the government to place randomly elected orphans into foster homes.
-All children received adequate nutrition.
-Children who stayed in the orphanage through the preschool years had a smaller head circumference and less brain activity than the kids in the foster homes.
-The foster home kids had normal IQ levels while the institution kids had significantly lower IQ scores.
-What conclusions can be drawn from
this research?
Romanian Orphans
focus on
how we experience
the world

Nurture
The process our brains use to select, organize, and interpret sensations

Perception
Perception is composed of many different things but can broadly be divided into two main parts
Perception
Our perceptions are a mixture
of what our senses take in and
what our experiences suggest.
Therefore,
Does this research seem to support the idea that nature shapes or that nurture shapes us?
Why?
Genie Case study
Read and view the case studies on pages 122-3 and Genie's case in detail - discuss.




What, if anything could have been done differently so that both science and the stability and welfare of Genie could have been served?

What does this research tell us
about nature and
nurture?
Focus on the
family
Siblings
Personality can be affected by the order in which a person is born into a family.
Alfred Adler was the first to study birth order in the 1920s.
-He believed that the personality of a first-born is not the same as as that
of a middle child.
-This research is now used to help people to improve their parenting,
marriages, even select more
appropriate careers.
See text page 212
Do these statements seem accurate when you consider your own family? How so?

Do you believe that birth order affects a person's personality?
Why / why not?
Parents
Family is especially instrumental in the early years of development.
-direct interaction with child
-transfer of knowledge
-rewarding of desired behaviours, punishment of undesired behaviours
-emotional identification
-child believes parents' attributes are his/her own too
-parents' values, appearance, religion, interests are passed on
Parenting Styles
Studies have shown that each of the 4 parenting styles ( Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, Neglectful) is correlate to particular behaviour outcomes.
See page 381 - chart

Correlation does not mean causation.
-Explain this in relation to
a parent's influence on his/
her child's behaviour.
The brain works on a set of assumptions and fills in the gaps by making educated guesses
Sensation
Interpretation
Sensation
-provides us with our input
-window into the world
-you are influenced by your "perceptual set"
-your tendency to perceive one thing not another
-influenced by your experiences and expectations

Neil Harbisson
"I hear colour"
Perception
For perception to occur, there must be 3 things
-a perceiver
-an object to be perceived
-a medium through which the information is passed
Interpretation
-shapes the information obtained
from sensation
-makes sense of input by putting
it into context
-eg) select and organize sound to
make music
-eg) select and organize scribbles
to form words and sentences
Discuss
1- Describe a time when your perceptual set influenced your behaviour.

2- Suggest a theory of why the brain needs to interpret what the eyes see (ears hear, etc.).

3- See page 156 for a Cultural
Anthropology example.
Memory
There are 3 main types of memory
Sensory
Short
Term
Long
Term
Extremely short term memory

no more than a sensation

Example: reflex response
-Short term interpretation of events and
meaning
-Limited – about 15 words
-Retention of about 30 seconds
-Limit is also determined by the meaning the
information has; the more meaning it has, the more information can be retained
-STM is necessary to access information in
Long Term Memory
Repeated access and review of information in STM encodes it in LTM

STM accesses this information frequently, and sorts, shuffles and catalogues it (puts it into context)

Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM

Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory

Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time.
Information is stored/gathered in
sequences called chunks

Limit is about seven chunks at one time

Helps in the retrieval of coherent
information

Example: phone numbers
(905) 867-5309
Chunking
Memory is Selective
Some parts of an experience may
be better remembered than others
(e.g. Remembering one distinct feature of a person rather than the whole person)
Sensory information triggers selective
memory
Memory is deceptive (if “holes” in
memory exist, the mind will “create” information to fill them)

View DVD "Brain Games"


Use mini-handout to track relevant info.
Complete Edith worksheet
Write down 3 things that you believe bring success.
What does heredity (genetics) and/or environment have to do with our list?
Full transcript