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Nurture and Nurture (EdK.Read)
Transcript of Nurture and Nurture (EdK.Read)
-Can you think of examples of how your environment (people, places, opportunities) has shaped you?
-Aaron Stern's experiment to prove that the right environment could create a genius
-used his daughter, Edith
-played her classical music, flash cards from infancy
-read whole encyclopedia by 5
-PhD by 18
-does this prove his theory correct?
-Why / why not?
-people study twins to help them understand heredity
-numerous studies of twins seperated at birth and raised apart - see how much of twins' similarities are based on genetics
-The "Jim Twins"
From BBC "The
Secret Life of
-Romanian government used to house all orphans in large institutions.
-This study convinced the government to place randomly elected orphans into foster homes.
-All children received adequate nutrition.
-Children who stayed in the orphanage through the preschool years had a smaller head circumference and less brain activity than the kids in the foster homes.
-The foster home kids had normal IQ levels while the institution kids had significantly lower IQ scores.
-What conclusions can be drawn from
how we experience
The process our brains use to select, organize, and interpret sensations
Perception is composed of many different things but can broadly be divided into two main parts
Our perceptions are a mixture
of what our senses take in and
what our experiences suggest.
Does this research seem to support the idea that nature shapes or that nurture shapes us?
Genie Case study
Read and view the case studies on pages 122-3 and Genie's case in detail - discuss.
What, if anything could have been done differently so that both science and the stability and welfare of Genie could have been served?
What does this research tell us
about nature and
Focus on the
Personality can be affected by the order in which a person is born into a family.
Alfred Adler was the first to study birth order in the 1920s.
-He believed that the personality of a first-born is not the same as as that
of a middle child.
-This research is now used to help people to improve their parenting,
marriages, even select more
See text page 212
Do these statements seem accurate when you consider your own family? How so?
Do you believe that birth order affects a person's personality?
Why / why not?
Family is especially instrumental in the early years of development.
-direct interaction with child
-transfer of knowledge
-rewarding of desired behaviours, punishment of undesired behaviours
-child believes parents' attributes are his/her own too
-parents' values, appearance, religion, interests are passed on
Studies have shown that each of the 4 parenting styles ( Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, Neglectful) is correlated to particular behaviour outcomes.
See page 381 - chart
Correlation does not mean causation.
-Explain this in relation to
a parent's influence on his/
her child's behaviour.
The brain works on a set of assumptions and fills in the gaps by making educated guesses
-provides us with our input
-window into the world
-you are influenced by your "perceptual set"
-your tendency to perceive one thing not another
-influenced by your experiences and expectations
"I hear colour"
For perception to occur, there must be 3 things
-an object to be perceived
-a medium through which the information is passed
-shapes the information obtained
-makes sense of input by putting
it into context
-eg) select and organize sound to
-eg) select and organize scribbles
to form words and sentences
1- Describe a time when your perceptual set influenced your behaviour.
2- Suggest a theory of why the brain needs to interpret what the eyes see (ears hear, etc.).
3- See page 156 for a Cultural
There are 3 main types of memory
Extremely short term memory
no more than a sensation
Example: reflex response
-Short term interpretation of events and
-Limited – about 15 words
-Retention of about 30 seconds
-Limit is also determined by the meaning the
information has; the more meaning it has, the more information can be retained
-STM is necessary to access information in
Long Term Memory
Repeated access and review of information in STM encodes it in LTM
STM accesses this information frequently, and sorts, shuffles and catalogues it (puts it into context)
Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM
Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory
Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time.
Information is stored/gathered in
sequences called chunks
Limit is about seven chunks at one time
Helps in the retrieval of coherent
Example: phone numbers
Memory is Selective
Some parts of an experience may
be better remembered than others
(e.g. Remembering one distinct feature of a person rather than the whole person)
Sensory information triggers selective
Memory is deceptive (if “holes” in
memory exist, the mind will “create” information to fill them)
View DVD "Brain Games"
Use mini-handout to track relevant info.
Complete Edith worksheet
Write down 3 things that you believe bring success.
What does heredity (genetics) and/or environment have to do with our list?