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Logical Fallacy Definitions
Transcript of Logical Fallacy Definitions
~ Marisa Sozzi Begging the
Question - Giving two choices when in actuality there could be more choices 12. Guilt By Association ~ Patrick Valencia -Assuming the thing to be true that you are trying to prove . It is circular.
Telling the hearer that something bad will happen to him if he does not accept the argument Appeal to Tradition 12.Guilt By Association Ad Hominem:
attacking the individual instead of argument In Mean Girls, everyone copies Regina George and cuts holes in their shirts because she is popular. Her popularity drives every girl in the school to follow her lead and wear similar shirts even though it is unappealing to the eye. They all want to fit in and if Regina thinks it's cool, then it is! No questions asked. Definition: Trying to get someone to accept something because it has been done or believed for a long time. Definition: Rejecting an argument or claim because the person proposing it likes someone whom is disliked by another Poisoning the Well Argument 3 "Giles: The proof is there! I have it from an honest man who heard Putnam say it!" (1299). Elizabeth Proctor committed this fallacy. -Presenting negative information about a person before he/she speaks so as to discredit the person's argument "Proctor: Will you read first, sir? It's a sort of testament. The people signing it declare their good opinion of Rebecca, and my wife, and Martha Corey." (1297). Mr. Hale committed this fallacy. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 The innocence of a person cannot be determined based only on the opinions and words of the majority. Argument 2 Argument 1 "Rebecca: Goody Ann! You sent a child to conjure up the dead?" (pg.185) "John...You have a faulty understanding of young girls. There is a promise made in any bed-... Spoke or silent, a promise is surely made. And she may dote on it now- I am sure she does- and thinks to kill me, then to take my place." Act 2 pg 1272 Abigail: Sometimes I wake and find myself standing in the open door-way and not a stitch on my body! I always hear her laughing in my sleep. I hear her singing her Barbados songs and tempting me with- "The man's ordained, therefore the light of God is in him."
Act 2 pg 177 RED HERRING - Introducing a topic not related to the subject at hand. Mr. Hale committed this fallacy. Example: 9.Straw Man Argument 10.Appeal to Pity Definition: Appeal to
force Post Every time Isabella has her lucky penny, her day goes well. Definition: Producing an argument about a weaker representation of the truth and attacking it Examples from "The Crucible": Examples of False Dilemma Danforth:"'You are under arrest in comptempt of this court.Now sit you down and take counsel with yourself,or you will be set in the jail until you decide to answer all the questions.'" (pg.1300) Examples of Red Herring Urging the hearer to accept the argument based upon an appeal to emotions, sympathy,etc. Tituba: Mister Reverend, I never- ad
hominen Universal Examples: These are arguments, or post hoc for short, that assume a faulty casual relationship. One event following another does not mean that the first event caused the later event. Hale: Tituba, I want you to wake this child. UNIVERSAL EXAMPLE Hoc Universal Example Tituba: I have no power on this child, sir. - If you hadn't eaten the ice cream this morning it would not have rained.
Explanation: Eating ice cream has no effect whatsoever on whether or not it rains.
-If you had taken out the trash out this morning the stove wouldn't of caught on fire.
Explanation:Taking out the trash would not of prevented the stove to catch on fire. Paranormal activity is real because I have experienced what can only be described as paranormal activity Hale: you most certainly do, and you will free her from it now! When did you compact with the devil?
Proctor "How do you call heaven?" Whore! Whore!" Straw Man Argument Examples: Appeal to Pity "Danforth: Mr. Putnam, I here an accusation by Mr. Corey against you. He states that you coldly prompted your daughter to cry witchery upon George Jacobs that is now in jail." (pg. 1299)
-Mr. Corey accused Mr. Putnam before he had a chance to defend himself. * * Examples from "The Crucible": Example 1 Example 2 If you don’t accept that the Sun
orbits the Earth, rather than the
other way around, then you’ll be excommunicated from the Church. "Abigail: Goody Proctor always kept poppets." (pg. 1303)
-Accusing Goody Proctor before she could defend herself or any real evidence was found. Proctor: On what proof, what proof? "Cheever: When I spoke with Goody Proctor in that house, she said she never kept no poppets. But she said she did keep poppets when she were a girl" (1304). “(Proctor): I have no love Mr. Parris. It is no secret. But God I surely love. (Cheever): He plow on Sunday, sir. (Danforth): Plow on Sunday! (Cheever): I think it be evidence, John. I am an official of the court, I cannot keep it. (Proctor): I have once or twice plowed on Sunday. I have 3 children, sir, and until last year my land gave little.” -"Parris: Why could there not have been poppets hid where no one ever saw them?
Proctor, furious: There might also be a dragon with five legs in my house, but no one has every seen it." P.1304
Explanation: The five-legged dragon has no relation to the poppet in Proctor's house.
-"Abigail: Gad. I'd almost forgot how strong you are, John Proctor!
Proctor, looking at Abigail now, the fainest suggestion of a knowing smile on his face: What's the mischief here?" P. 1245
Explanation: John Proctor changes the subject from his strength to the chaotic events that have transpired. In order to change the subject. * "Proctor: She has not been a girl these fifteen years, your honor.
Hathorne: But a poppet will keep fifteen years, will it not?" (1304). 1. Explanation: * Cheever is over exaggerating the fact that John Proctor has plowed on Sundays and Cheever is trying to make Procter’s argument that he loves God more unbelievable. Cheever states that Elizabeth kept dolls when she was little. John Proctor points out in her defense that she is no longer little but rather a full grown adult. Hathorne connects Elizabeth's childhood to her present and uses this to justify his reasoning of her relation to witchcraft. Just because Elizabeth Proctor had dolls when she were little, it does not mean that she has one now. Cheever: Mr. Proctor, I have little time. The court bid me search your house, but I like not to search your house. So will you hand me any poppets that your wife may keep. "Parris: All innocent and christian people are happy for the courts! These people (accused witches) are gloomy for it." (pg.1297) Universal Examples: "But Mr.Proctor they will not hang them if they confess, Sarah Good will only sit in jail sometime-recalling-and here's a wonder for you; think on this, Goody Good is pregnant!" pg 1273 The problem with this argument is that there are people, even in the time of the Salem Witch Trial, who do not believe in the promise Elizabeth refers to. 1. Explanation: Elizabeth using her pregnancy to get out of court. Universal Example * Nick is a liar so do not believe a word he says. - Either we go to Yogurtland or we go to Panda Express.
Explanation: We don't have to go to Yogurtland or Panda Express we can also go to other food places in the same area or just go somewhere else.
- It's my way or the high way.
Explanation: The possibility of compromise is there so that means it doesn't have to be my way it can be a range of ways. Mr. Hale presented this argument to John Proctor when Proctor mentions that he is not a fan of Reverend Parris. This argument is fallacious because Hale is insinuating that because Mr. Parris is a reverend the light of God is in him, which is not necessarily true. Proctor: Poppets? Examples from "The Crucible": Elizabeth: I never kept no poppets, not since I were a girl The problem with this argument is that Mr. Hale is referencing the Bible. The Bible can be interpreted in many different ways, therefore, Hale's argument is fallacious in nature. Cheever: I spy a poppet, goody proctor - "Danforth: We have thought it too convenient to be credited. However, if I should tell you now I will let her be kept another month; and if she begin to show natural signs, you shall have her living yet another year until she is delivered-what say you to that?" P.1296
Explanation: Here they are saying that either they wait a month to kill her or a year depending on whether she is pregnant or not. When, they don't have to kill her at all.
- "Hale: I must say it Mr. Proctor; that it is not for you to decide. The man's ordained, therefore the light of God is within him." P.1277
Explanation: They are saying that since he is a religious figurehead he is good and that anyone who says otherwise is wrong. When in fact someone who is seen to be "good" can have "evil" motivations. Cheever: would you please give it to me? "Man, remember, until an hour before the Devil fell, God thought him beautiful in Heaven." Act 2 pg 1280 Universal Example Elizabeth: why, this is Mary's 2. Elizabeth: has the court discovered a text in poppets now I couldn't do my homework because I was in a terrible car accident that is why I could not turn it in on time! 2. It's not fair that when doing the same work and with the same qualifications, women are paid only $ .70 for every $1.00 that men are paid. Universal Example Danforth: I am sure of it sir. but the rumor speaks rebellion in Andover, and it- + The Democratic and Republican parties disagreeing with each other just because the title of their political party. = Parris: There is no rebellion in
Andover. When people hear "gay marriage" there are those who accept it and those who try to argue that it is not to be accepted. The second group often appeals to tradition by referencing the Bible. (ex. Leviticus 18:22 "You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination.") In the 2008 presidential election, there were a number of people that tried to appeal to tradition, for they felt a black man should not be president. Parris: I tell you what is said here
sir. Andover have thrown out the court
they say, and will have no part of witch
craft. There be a faction here. feeding
on the news and I tell you true sir. I fear that a riot near. Explanation:
The reason why this is a fallacy is
because the fact that Tituba is
Barbados which shows off a little
witchcraft in her songs Universal Example Explanation:
The reason why this is a
fallacy is the fact that
in the story Elizabeth is
blamed due to the poppet
which immediately confirms
witchcraft to the people
at the time. We need an explanation!!! Explanation:
The reason why this is a fallacy is the fact
in Andover their is this whole situation about witchcraft is in part so it shows that
witchcraft equals anarchy. UNIVERSAL
1 Isabella's luck has absolutely nothing to do with her penny. The penny has no say in what happens or doesn't get to happen in life. The first universal example
was when in World War II
when the americans put the
Japanese in internment camps due to the fact that
we were fighting them. So
because we are fighting the
japanese all japanese are bad Example
2 Giles "proof" consists of the word of an honest man who witnessed an incident. Both Proctor and Giles created a petition with the signatures of all of the people in town who believe that the accused are innocent. Despite the provided testament, there is no way that the hearer can be persuaded by an unreliable source. When in 9/11 Terrorist attacked the twin towers causing a whole era of racism towards all muslims. Unfortunately this all was a wrong act of the people to ever blame them all. Examples: Explanation: Using your accident in a way to get out of doing your homework. Explanation: Even though men and women are considered equal women are still seen as inferior to men.