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IB Geography Core Revision Guide
Transcript of IB Geography Core Revision Guide
Patterns in Resource Consumption Popuation Change Population can be viewed as a system with inputs and outputs Births Deaths Immigration Emigration Natural Increase / Deacrease Migrational Change The balance between these components determines changes to population.
The balance has changed over time and varies from country to country.
The changes in balance between births and deaths is known as 'The Demographic Transition Model' Describe and explain the changes in the demographic transition.
Total Population Describe and explain the resulting age distributions in the population pyramids shown. Even after birth rates have fallen, the population continues to grow. This is because there are more people reaching child bearing years, so although the birth rate and fallen, more babies are being born in total. This is know as population momentum. Crude Birth Rate Number of live birth per 1000 population Factors affecting CBR Need for families to work
Need for children to care for parents in old age Changes in the roll of women in society Delayed age of marriage Delayed age of child bearing Women persuing careers and academic training Changes of rights of women in society Lowering infant and child mortality meaning more children survive Increased cost of raising children Motivation for having children changes from necessity to love/companionship etc. Crude Birth Rate by Country Can you describe and explain the patterns in CBR? Fertility Exponential growth of the worlds population. Describe and explain the trends. In which parts of the worls is population growing fastest? Annual growth rate=Birth rate - Death Rate Other Measurements of Fertility STANDARDISED BIRTH RATE (SBR) is gives the birth rate for a region on the basis that the region's age composition is the same as that of the country as a whole.
TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (TFR) is the average number of births per woman in her life time.
GENERAL FERTILITY RATE (GFR) is the number of births per thousand women aged 15-49 year (in some countries 15-44)
AGE SPECIFIC BIRTH RATE (ASBR) is the number of births per thousand women in a particular age group. GFR= Number of births x 1000 per year
no. of women aged 14-49 ASBR = no. of births x1000 per year
women in a specific age group Sociocultural Level of education Religion Economic Link between standard of living and fertility rate. Mortality Causes of Death The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the causes of death as a country develops.
LEDCs - high proportion of deaths from infectious diseases (many waterbourne) eg cholera, river blindness, malaria.
MEDCs - high proportion of deaths are from degenerative diseases such a heart failure, stroke and cancer. Death rate per 1000 population Describe the global patter in death rates. How would you explain this pattern?Why is the crude death rate in the UK and other European countries higher than might be expected? Measures of Mortality Crude Death Rate (CDR) CDR = Total no of Deaths x 1000 per year
Total population CDR is a poor indicator of mortality trends as aging population with have higher CDRs than countries with more youthful populations.
Denmark CDR = 11 per thousand
Pakistan CDR = 7.8 per thousand Age Specific Mortality Rates These look at mortality within a specific age groups and therefore make comparison between countries easier. Examples include the Infant Mortality Rate and Child Mortality Rate IMR = Total number of deaths of children <1 year old x 1000
Total number of live births per year CMR = Total number of deaths of children aged 1to 5 year old x 1000
Total number of live births per year Life Expectancy The average number of years a person can expect to live given that demographica factors remain unchanged. Many countries particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa have seen reversals in their trends in life expectancy due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Variations in Mortality Variations occur at global and local scales. Age Stucture High life expectancy leads to high CDR Social Class Poorer or other marginalised groups may have lower life expectancy than the population as a whole Occupation Some occupations are more hazaodous (eg farming, Military, oil explorations or may be associated with diseases (eg mining and lund disease) Place of Residence Mortality may be higher in
poor urban areas with high levels of deprivation. (LEDC - shanty towns, MEDC - inner city)
rural areas with low productivity Child and Infant Mortality Infant mortality is a very sesitive indicator of developemt.
IMR depends on safe water supply and sanitation, housing, healthcare and nutrition.
CMR is declining globally, but slowly in sub-Saharan Africa Population Pyramids Population pyramids show the age and sex structure of a population. Countries at different stages of the demographic transition display different characteristics. In the early stages, high birth and high death rates create a pyramid with a wide base and narrow top. Gradually as birth rates fall the base of the pyramid narrows. The top of the pyramid gets wider as death rate falls and life expectancy increases as more people are surviving to the older age cohorts. Naurally there are usually slightly more male infants than female, and more females than males in older cohots as male mortality is higher in younger ages groups. Japan - An Ageing Population Japan's population is projected to get smaller as fertility has tumbled and life expectancy has increased. The old age dependency ratio has increased massively since 1950 whilst the percentage of people under 15 has declined from 35.4% to 8.6% Uganda - A Youthful populations Uganda has a youthful population and is growing rapidly. The populaiton is growing rapidly. This is shown in the wide base of the pyramid.
What to the concave sides and the narrow top of the pyramid indicate? UAE - Migration shown in Population Pyramids Describe and explain the changes seen in the population strucure of the United Arab Emirates.
Consider the importance of migrant labour in the development of the economy.
Why is the migration mainly men? What explains the increasing number of women migrants?
How might this influence fertility? Population pyramids often reflect historical events such as this pyramid for Japan showing the effects of the World Wars and the subsequent babay booms. Dependency ratios Responses to high and low fertility Impacts of Youthful Populations Impacts of ageing populations Pro- and Anti-Natalist Policies Migration Forced Voluntary Impacts Origin Destination Gender and Change Measurements of regional and global disparities Origin of disparities Disparities and change Reducing disparities Types of Migration Lee's Model Of Migration describes push and pull factors that affect a migrants decision to move. The origin has positive negative and neutral points. The potential migrant perceives the destination positive negative and neutral points. Intervening obstacles are barriers to migration. The benefits of moving must be sufficient to overcome these. Permanent Temporary Can you complete the diagram with internal and international examples in each quater? Daily commuters Seasonal fruit
pickers Nomadic hearders Deportation to Australia Positive
Population pressure reduces
Removal of young educated "brain drain"
Decline in local markets/pulling power
Reduced purchasing power.
Closure of Local services Ugandan Asians Positive
Population growth in declining regions / countries
Increased demand for housing and services creating economic growth.
New industry and investment attracted.
New skilled young workforce
Multicultural enrichment. Negative
rise in far right nationalism
Overcrowding and ghettoization
Spread of disease to new areas (eg flu to Amazon) Consider the socio-economic political and environmental consequences Measure the working population compared to those dependent on it It is a very crude tool. Many people stay on after 15. Many people work longer than 60.
MEDC - High aged dependency
LEDC - High youth dependency Population <15 + Population >60
Population >15 <60 Advantages and Disadvantages of Youthful Populations Potential Advantages:
large potential workforce
Lower medical costs
atractive to new investment
source of new innovation and ideas
large potential marked for selected goods
development of services such as schools Potential disadvantages:
cost of schooling and clinics
need to provide suffient food and water to the growing population
high rates of unempoyment
large numbers living in poor quality housing (shanty towns)
high rates of populaiton growth
high crime rates. Case Study: Uganda Examine gender inequalities in:
land tenure Atmosphere and change Soil and Change Water and Change Biodiversity and change Sustainability and the environment Patterns in resource consupmtion Changing patterns in energy consupmtion Conservation strategies By 2020 25% of Japanese population will be over 65. Issues include:
provision of nursing care.
cost of pensions and healthcare provision is becoming.
reduction in labour force.
economic decline as industry moves overseas. Benefits:
Provision of childcare (looking after grandchildren).
Elderly have skills and training that are of benefit (eg employment of retired workers in DIY stores) Bibliography and further reading:
Chrispin and Jegede (2000): Population Resources and Development, Collins Educational, London
Digby (2001): Global Challenges Heineman Educational Publishers, Oxford
Nagle and Cook (2009): Geography for the IB Diploma Oxford University Press, Oxford
Ross, Digby, Chapman & Cowling (2011): AQA Geography Oxford University Press, Oxford
Waugh (2002): Geography and Integrated Approach Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham
Photographs and diagrams sourced from and freely available in the public domain using Google Images and therefore deemed to be open source