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Absolutism & Enlightenment
Transcript of Absolutism & Enlightenment
policy of extending power and dominion of a nation by gaining territory or gaining control over the political or economic life of other areas.
the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another
undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person
a theory or set of theories regarding a sphere of political thought.
freedom from external control
adherence to or government according to constitutional principles
The Absolute Monarchs
King of France
Template for all other absolute kings
Ruled by Divine Right
God choose him to rule
Demanded Protestants convert to Catholicism
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia
Changed Russia from a backwards country to a modern nation with western ideas, culture, and technology
Executed his old guard to develop a new modern army.
Made nobles shave beards and where western clothes.
Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.
Queen of England
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Made England officially Protestant
Established England as the dominant navy force in Europe
Defeated the Spanish Armada
Promoted English drama and culture
Kings James I and Charles I
King James I of England:
increased the power of the monarchy
believed in the Divine Right to Rule
James' I son
Further increased the power of the monarch in England
Collected taxes without Parliament's permission
Removed Parliament when they questioned him
The Scientific Revolution
Developed the idea of heliocentrism
Improve the telescope
Observed Jupiter’s moons
Confirmed Copernicus’ planetary revolutions
Developed the modern experimental method
Developed theory of universal gravitation
Applied reason and rationality to natural phenomena
Inspired others thinkers with the idea of the universe having natural laws
Disputed the earth consisted of 4 elements (air, fire, water, earth)
Discovered natural elements and compounds through experiments
Identified radioactivity and discovered two radioactive elements
Used radioactivity to improve medical treatments
Discovered that heat could kill bacteria which otherwise spoiled liquids including milk
Proved germs in the air cause bacterial growth
Created a steam engine which worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines
His improved rotary steam engine became a principal power source in the Industrial Revolution
The metric unit of power is called a “watt”
The French Revolution
The American Revolution
The American colonies broke off from Great Britain (England) due to high taxes and lack of representation in the British Parliament
The French would read about the American Revolution and wish they could break from their king.
France Before Revolution
The Palace at Versailles is built in 1682
France is ruled by absolute monarchs
Taxes are high and the majority of the people are very poor.
The Three Estates
The First Estate
Consisted of the clergy:
.5% of population
Did not have to pay taxes because the church was exempt from paying taxes by church law.
The Second Estate
Consisted of the nobility
1.5% of population
Nobles didn't have to pay taxes
They could also collect feudal dues
Nobles served as army officers and high court positions.
The Third Estate
The largest estate.
98% of the population
Made up of the common people
Also included the "bourgeoisie"
Middle class merchants, professionals, shopkeepers
Financial Crisis Leads to Revolution
Crowned king of France in 1775
he was Louis XIV great, great, great, great, grandson
He believed in the Divine Right and was an absolute monarch
He was married to Marie Antoinette
Both he and his queen were unpopular
Taxes would rise in 1778
The clergy and nobles did not have to pay these higher taxes
The high taxes were needed to fight the British and help the American colonies in the Revolutionary War.
France had spent too much money helping the Americans in their revolution
By 1786 France's finances were in a dangerous situation
King Louis could no longer get loans
The Estates General
A meeting of all three estates
They were to discuss what to do on the financial problem
People "hoped" this would fix the problem
The National Assembly
The Third Estate shows up the the Estates General and declare themselves the true representatives of the the French people
They call the clergy and nobles mere parasites
They name themselves the National Assembly
The Storming of the Bastille
King Louis tries to shut down the National Assembly
When word of this reaches Paris the public grows into a mob
The attack and seize the royal prison known as the Bastille and take its weapons
The king recognizes the National Assembly
The revolution began.
France's New Government
National Assembly in Control
In 1789 the National Assembly removes the privileges of the nobles and takes away church land to pay off the nations debt.
Creates the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Life, Liberty, and Fraternity
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
Government rests of "popular sovereignty"
Announced that all Frenchmen are "free and equal"
Name the Document!!
created due to high taxes, unfair tax
wanted to create a separate independent government
wanted to change current government
created by a rebellious group that was not part of government
wanted to break away from a king
influenced by Enlightenment ideas
emphasized freedoms and being independent
freedom of speech, religion, fair trail
emphasized equality and fairness
The Reign of Terror!
Louis XVI Death
There was a poor harvest in 1789 which caused a mob to march on Louis' Palace in Versailles and drag him back to Paris
Louis tries to escape France but is caught
The Assembly makes Louis give up his royal powers
France becomes a republic
In 1793 Louis is executed...
The Committee of Public Safety
France was in multiple wars
To help control the county the Committee of Public Safety was created.
It was run by Robespierre
Head of the Committee of Public Safety
Started the Reign of Terror
Named for the amount killed during this time
Felt he needed to use force to make people accept the new government
Reign of Terror
Committee of Public Safety used savage repression to crush rebels
People lost the right to defend themselves
Nobles, Catholics, suspected traitors were executed
Maybe 40,000 killed...
Ending the Bloodshed
France needed a large army to fight against neighboring powers
mandatory military service
After the war the Convention turned against the Committee of Public Safety and Robespierre
Robespierre was executed; ending the Reign of Terror
The Rise of Napoleon
Born on island of Corsica.
Sent to military school
Most gifted generals of all time
mass army tactics changed history
Napoleon as General
After Robespierre France remind at war
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Napoleon was able defeat the Austrians and negotiate peace with Britain
The French set up republics in Holland, Switzerland, and Italy
Napoleon Becomes Emperor
Using his army's loyalty and his popularity, Napoleon slowly over threw the National Assembly.
Introduced reforms, legal codes, and combined traditional and revolutionary laws.
In 1804 he named himself Emperor of France
Napoleon's French Empire
Napoleon's ambitions united most of Europe against him.
Great Britain, his rival, would create several coalitions against him.
Napoleon would control most of Europe, the largest since the Roman Empire
In 1809 Spain rebelled
In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia
After failure in Russia, all European powers invaded France in 1814
They restore the king in France
Napoleon is exiled.
Age of Enlightenment
Baron de Montesquieu
Separation of Powers
In a democracy, people are sovereign
People are good
Laws come from the people
Government protects "natural rights"
Life, Liberty, and Property
People have a right to overthrow government
Social Equality for women and men
Boys and girls should both go to school
People without government are evil and cruel
Powerful governments keep order and peace
People have to give up rights
Knowledge should improve human life
Declaration of Independence
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
Principles of English Law
Absolute Rights of Individuals
Abolitionist, worked for the end of British slavery
"arriving at the foot of the guillotine, Louis XVI looked for a moment at the instruments of his execution and asked Sanson why the drums had stopped beating. He came forward to speak, but there were shouts to the executioners to get on with their work. As he was strapped down, he exclaimed "My people, I die innocent!" Then, turning towards his executioners, Louis XVI declared "Gentlemen, I am innocent of everything of which I am accused. I hope that my blood may cement the good fortune of the French." The blade fell. It was 10:22 am. One of the assistants of Sanson showed the head of Louis XVI to the people, whereupon a huge cry of "Vive la Nation! Vive la République!" arose and an artillery salute rang out which reached the ears of the imprisoned Royal family."
Napoleon, by the grace of God and the Constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French
Who Said That
"knowledge should be used to improve human life"
"man is evil and a power government is needed to keep them in check"
"The power of the government should not rest on one person, but should be split"
"Every individual should have absolute rights that can not be taken away"
"All people, regardless of their color, are equal to each other in all ways"
Laws should not come from a tyrannical king, but rather the people themselves