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Thesis I Oral Defense

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Kit Guzman

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Transcript of Thesis I Oral Defense

Martin Kit J. Guzman, MS Guidance and Counseling UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF OPPRESSORS TO BULLYING: A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT
OF RESTORATIVE COUNSELING PROGRAM Review of Related Literatures and Studies THANK YOU VERY MUCH! The Problem and Its Background One of the trending issues nowadays in counseling is the problem of bullying. Studies have already been done especially on the awareness of people about this matter in school, workplace, etc. School counselors play a major role in preventing bullying incidents and if it’s already occurring, in helping the persons involved to turn into fully-developed human beings. In recent years, bullying has been defined as a person or group of people’s continuous act in purpose of harming those they see as “weaker” or “different” (McGraw 2008). Bullying is still considered by many to be part of a natural course of events or even an unchangeable part of human nature (Watkins 2003). However, more than two years of extensive reading on the subject has revealed that bullying is a common and persistent problem in society, particularly in schools. Chapter I Many counselors have been dealing with designing comprehensive school counseling programs. This is a reality that these people have given majority of their time, knowledge, skills and counseling techniques in a single place, which is the school. Another thing is that most people in the counseling profession have a belief in individualistically - oriented counseling theories and techniques. One of the trending issues nowadays in counseling is the problem of bullying. Studies have already been done especially on the awareness of people about this matter in school, workplace, etc. School counselors play a major role in preventing bullying incidents and if it’s already occurring, in helping the persons involved to turn into fully-developed human beings. In recent years, bullying has been defined as a person or group of people’s continuous act in purpose of harming those they see as “weaker” or “different” (McGraw 2008). Bullying is still considered by many to be part of a natural course of events or even an unchangeable part of human nature (Watkins 2003). However, more than two years of extensive reading on the subject has revealed that bullying is a common and persistent problem in society, particularly in schools. Bullies are assumed to be more popular than other kids and have larger groups of friends. It has also been in some circumstances that bullies belong from richer families or are part of popular social groups. It has been proved that bullying is done on purpose, with the intention to hurt and/or embarrass someone. Bullies will do their attacks over and over again because they are always looking for ways to put their victims down. This is seemed to make them feel better about themselves. A typical bully is described as gaining intense pleasure when “tossing” another boy and seeing him “pitched bodily” on the ground. It’s no fun to him when no one is hurt or frightened. The bully is seen as exulting in the evident pain which every now and then he could see he was inflicting. Children bully for a variety of reasons. Some torment their classmates to gain a sense of power and control. Some bully in an effort to gain recognition and status from peers that they might not be able to get in other ways. Others bully to compensate for feelings of inadequacy. Still others target their classmates as a way of venting frustration with problems at home or problems in school, for example, learning problems or peer rejection and some bully because they've been bullied themselves. Bullies usually choose as targets peers who are weak, unpopular, and unlikely to resist. They zero in on children who stand out in some way, such as the teacher's pet, a child with a speech defect, a slow learner, a child with big ears, and a child who wears the wrong clothes or the child for who English is a second language. Children are not born bullies. Bullies are made which means they can be unmade. They often are taught from an early age that the way to get what they want is through force. They learn to respond to challenges through confrontation, and to express themselves with their fists rather than with words. As they get older, bullies are at risk for further acts of violence, including frequent fighting and carrying weapons. A bully's education in aggression usually begins at home. Often, bullies come from households where there is little parental supervision and a lack of warmth and attention. Their parents might model aggressive behavior as a way of solving problems, and/or discipline through a combination of angry outbursts and corporal punishment. The message the children receive is that might makes right. Those kinds of parents might support their child's bullying behavior by their failure to disapprove of it, or their outright endorsement of it. In addition, they often fail to model non-violent ways of dealing with social problems, so that their children don't learn the social skills needed to resolve conflicts through cooperation. Children also learn aggressive behavior from the media, notably from television. The amount of televised violence children today are exposed to is simply astounding. By the age of 14, a child will have seen as many as 11,000 murders on television. The average cartoon depicts 26 violent incidents. Children see television characters get their way, settle disputes, and acquire things by using force without suffering any consequences. The lesson they learn is that aggression pays off. Research indicates that children who see violence frequently on television can become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others and come to view aggression as an acceptable way of solving problems. At Colegio San Agustin, Makati City, studies proved that the students are aware of what bullying is all about. An action research was conducted to know the level of awareness of students about bullying. Students’ level of awareness since 2008 has been elevated through programs and symposium held by the school. The school’s guidance center has also promoted an anti-bullying campaign program which is known as the Pro-Buddy S.A.F.E. (School Advocating Friendly Environment). Awareness should not be the end of the program’s goal. The guidance center of a school should also design a comprehensive counseling program especially tailored for bullying. One approach that has been there since the early times and is seemed to be working well in some schools that embraced the use of the approach. This restorative approach to bullying has been widely used in Australia and the United States. Proofs that this technique is effective have been made known. Schools that promote and use the restorative approach to bullying have reduced peer aggression since their focus is on changing peer norms and behavior (Saufler 2009). The main focus of restorative approach is on building, maintaining and when necessary, restoring familial relationships. Studies about bullying have been focusing in the characteristics of the bullies and victims. It’s about time to realize that there is something that has been damaged in the different aspect of the person’s individuality.

It safely says that restorative approach could be the answer to bullying cases that schools are facing. Restorative approach aims to have a great impact on the well-being of every person who bullies and being bullied.

In a restorative response to bullying, children who have harmed others are held accountable by being directly confronted by the emotional harm they have caused. They are also required to play an active role in repairing the harm that has been done. Setting of the Study The study will be conducted at Colegio San Agustin (CSA), Makati. It is located in Dasmariñas Village, Makati City. CSA is a basic education school run by the Order of St. Augustine, a religious institute which traces its origins back to its illustrious founder, St. Augustine. On 7 July 1969, the school opened its doors to the first enrollees, both male and female. A globally attuned and progressive administration showing concern and service for all, a dedicated and innovative faculty and staff with a strong commitment to serve, and a dynamic and responsive student community with a heart for the poor and the needy and a mind in constant pursuit of truth and justice - these make up Colegio San Agustin, a school distinguished, not only, by its drive towards academic excellence, but also, by its desire to reach out and evangelize others for God’s greater honor and glory. Theoretical Framework The study is inspired by Socio-Ecological Theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner and Restorative approach to offenses.

Socio –Ecological theory views that violence is complicated and results from a combination of multiple influences on behavior. It is about how individuals relate to those around them and to their broader environment. Socio-ecological theory has been previously applied to the conceptualization of bullying. Incidents of bullying are phenomena that are jointly influenced by the individual, family, school and peer group.
Areas concerning the person who bullies are individual, peer, school and family. The classic ecological theory was used as basis to explain the interrelationship between the individual and multiple environments. This is where the restorative approach comes in as it aims to repair any damaged aspect of the person who was involved in any bullying act.

John Braithwaite explained restorative approach as provider of a supporting philosophy for making, maintaining and repairing relationships and for fostering a sense of social responsibility and shared accountability. The restorative way challenges deeply-held notions about power and control and the urge to make things unpleasant for someone when they have done something wrong or ‘misbehaved’ like what punitive approach does to students. Statement of the Problem The objective is to create a counseling program that will help the oppressors to change. Specifically, it aims to determine the following: 1.What is the demographic profile of the oppressors to bullying in terms of the following:
1.1.Age?
1.2.Gender?
1.3.Socio-economic status?
1.4.Family background?
1.5.Bully Type? 2.What is the perception of the oppressors to bullying on the following socio-ecological dimensions on the respondents:
2.1.Individual Area?
2.1.1.Self-Concept

2.2.Peer Area?
2.2.1.Peer Support

2.3.School Area?
2.3.1.School support

2.4.Family Area?
2.4.1.Condition of Relationship 3.Is there a significant relationship of the four areas in the oppressors’ socio-ecological dimensions? 4.What counseling program could be developed to help the respondents? Hypothesis Ho1: There are no significant relationships in the different socio-ecological dimensions of the oppressors to bullying.

Ha1: There are significant relationships in the different socio-ecological dimensions of the oppressors to bullying. Significance of the Study The study will greatly benefit students who are involved in bullying and people in the helping profession and education. For students, they may have a better understanding of why is it damaging to bully others and promote a friendly school environment. For school counselors, they may use this research as basis of considering restorative approach to counseling in helping their students involved in bullying incidents. For teachers, they may refer to this research for them to realize that bullying is a serious case and shouldn’t be ignored and they have important part to play in preventing it. For school administrators, they may have better understanding of the school-counseling program and evaluate its effectiveness. This study may also help them in thinking about the possibilities of applying the restorative approach in preventing bullying. For everyone, they may have a better understanding of oppressors to bullying. They may be able to reflect on their socio-ecological dynamics and know the underlying reasons behind it.
For future researchers, they may conduct the same type of research concerning the victims of bullying. Scopes and Limitation The study will be conducted in a single institution using respondents from a single batch (Grade 8 students) from School Year 2013-2014. The researcher will be using students from a single school year. Since it is observable that there is a large number in the student population, the researcher will just get an ideal sample size with a justifiable marginal error. The study will depend on the perception of the oppressors to bullying about themselves, their relationship with their peers, family and people in school. The study aims to create a counseling program only for oppressors to bullying. Chapter II The Problem and Its Background Crawford in her study, Using Restorative Practices as an Intervention for Youth Who Commit Violence and Other Crimes: A Healing Mechanism for Perpetrators and Their Victims (2011) explained that Restorative practices have been repeatedly shown as an effective method of treatment for victims, offenders, and the community. It also provides the support needed for victims and families when confronting the offender and focuses upon the importance of remediation and healing of the offender. This approach allows for youth to be more in control of their behaviors and actions in school and promotes collaborative relationships with teachers and administrators in school systems. Huddleston et. al. with their study, A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications (2004) contributes to the literature related to intervention with bullies by providing description of a promising intervention model and by using mixed methods resulting in evidence that this intervention had high acceptability, integrity and efficacy.
The participatory approach to problem identification and intervention development was successful in several ways. School personnel and the target student’s mother identified ongoing communication with the interventionist as strength of the intervention. A study of U.S. National Institutes of Health on Statistics of Bullying in United States (2000) stated that bullying affects more than five million students in grade six through eleven. The study also said that one out of seven students has reported being bullied. These data signify that bullying has been a major problem of many schools. This signifies the great amount of damages that bullying incidents cause. Family variables explain that family socialization may contribute to bullying. Parenting style and sibling relationships may contribute to understanding of the family connection to bullying. Parents may be considered to have the most responsibility for bullying incidents.
In trying to know the family connection to bullying, it has been found that parents of children who bully tend to lack involvement and warmth, use physical punishment and violent emotional outbursts, and demonstrate a permissive attitude with regard to their child’s aggressive behaviors. School variables explain that the school setting affects the academic, social, and emotional functioning of all students and is integrally connected to the overall climate of the school. The following factors were recognized that affect school climate. These are milieu or the characteristics of the individuals and groups in the school, social system or the variables which address the relationships within the school and culture or variables which include group beliefs and values. Peer variables explain that the peer group support becomes a major socialization force during early adolescence. The transition from elementary school to middle school is a potential stressor associated with negative emotional and psychological outcomes for some students. During this transition bullying appears to have a temporary increase in bullying during early adolescence. Individual variables explain that individuals involved in bullying are more likely to experience significant depressive symptomatology. Although it is evident that individuals involved in bullying may experience greater levels of depression and anxiety than individuals not involved in bullying, the temporal relation between involvement and bullying and internalizing problems is less clear. A child with an insecure attachment learns to expect inconsistent and insensitive interactions with others, whereas a child with a secure attachment style comes to expect consistent and sensitive interactions. Children who had insecure, anxious-avoidant, or anxious-resistant attachments at the age of 18 months were more likely than children with secure attachments to become a victim of bullying by age five. Each individual brings his or her own characteristics to the bullying interaction. Swearer and Peugh, in their study, A Social-Ecological Model for Bullying Prevention and Intervention in Early Adolescence: An Exploratory Examination stated that participation in bullying is the result of the multipart interplay between individuals and their broader social environment. Social-ecological theory has been previously applied to the conceptualization of bullying. Incidents of bullying are phenomena that are jointly influenced by the individual, family, school and peer group. Olweus, in his study Bullying at School (1993) concluded that there was nothing to support the common view that bullies suffer from low – esteem. The bullies had unusually little anxiety or loneliness. It also manifested that bullies were more popular among their batch mates than those who do not engage themselves into bullying.
The study showed that popular students may become bullies. Bullying has been associated with self esteem for those who have been popular ever since their stay in school but not with students who have been bullied first before they engaged themselves into bullying with themselves as the oppressors. Foreign Studies Herrera in his study The Criminal Law Context of Restorative Justice (2004) discussed that the idea of restorative approach is different way of responding to offense committed. Its conceptual framework seeks to render justice to offenders and victims alike instead of tilting the balance heavily in favor of one stakeholder to the disadvantage of the other. It seeks to re-establish social relationships that are the endpoint of restorative justice. It also seeks to address the wrongs in the doing and suffering of a wrong that is also the goal of a corrective approach. The community is the greatest beneficiary of this kind of approach as it aims to restore familial relationships within it. Consedine in his study Restorative Justice – A Gospel Response to Crime (2004) discussed that the need for restorative approach to helping victims and oppressors is high. He also added that restorative approach offers healing and forgiveness to all involved. It also places responsibilities for offense in the hands of those who commit it. The approach brings a dimension of community responsibility into being. It recognizes that we all form part of the human family and that we have responsibilities towards one another. Hinduja and Patchin in their study Cyberbullying Status in the Philippines (2012) explained that this cyberbullying is a willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices. Through the use of Internet sites like e-mails, blogs, social networking sites, bullying has taken into another form, as if even such improper behavior also evolved along with the modern world.
Study reveals that 50% of the 1,247 respondents aged 14-24 has digitally abusive behavior. The study also presents that young people regularly encounter digital abuse, from mild to extreme, including a shocking 45% of young people report that they see people being mean to each other on social networking sites. Maslog and Jaraplasan in their study, The Level of Awareness of CSA Students about Bullying (2008) discussed how aware the students of the school to several bullying act. They have been able to classify the different ways on how bullies do their work in order to hurt others. The students also admit that bullying could be a major problem of the school and needs to be solved immediately.
Several programs and activities regarding prevention of bullying have been done by the school including the Anti-0Bullying Campaign Program which is now known as the Pro-Buddy Campaign S.A.F.E. (School Advocating Friendly Environment). Yu, in her study of Relationship Between Participant Roles In Cyberbullying And The Psychological Well-Being Of Male And Female Adolescents (2011) proved that there is significant gender difference when it comes to participant roles in cyber bullying. There is no gender difference when it comes to overall psychological well-being among the participants. There is significant relationship between participant role and overall psychological well-being. Local Studies Rigby (2008) explained Restorative practices are designed to restore damaged relationships between individuals or groups. They require that the ‘offender’ acknowledges wrongdoing and the harm he or she has caused, and then acts restoratively, through an apology and compensatory action. The practitioner follows the script given below with partners playing the parts of ‘bully’ and ‘victim.
This approach may be applied at a Community Conference at which the offender(s) and ‘target(s)’ meet, together with other interested parties, parents, or in a classroom with students as participants, or in at meeting at which the bully and the victim are present. RestorativeJustice.org (2009) explains Victim Offender Restorative Dialogue is a program which provides the victim of a crime and their offender an opportunity to meet face-to-face, in a safe environment, to explore the aftermath of the crime and understand the impact it has had on all parties.
The restorative dialogue is based on restorative justice principles which aim to redress the harm caused by crime through the voluntary participation of those most impacted – the victim and offender. The emphasis is on offender accountability, repair, safety and prevention of future harm. Cowie (2009) enumerated the advantages of the use of restorative approach (from psychological perspective) to bullying. She discussed that the school climate is improved by increasing young people’s understanding of rules and trust in how these rules are applied. There are fewer student suspensions and improved ratings on positive school climate. There is a reduced likelihood of retribution of repeat offending, so preventing the escalation of violence. There is a growth in positive relationships with peer and adults, with greater potential for enhancing pro-social behavior and building up self-esteem. Young people learn greater understanding of the reasons why perpetrators act the way they do. They can be helped to feel better about themselves by placing emphasis on the emotional aspects of their experience. They develop greater empathy for peers in distress by engaging in some form of restorative practice. Educators can learn how to remedy bullied children’s relationship difficulties by understanding more about their origins and by building up self-esteem. With this regard, schools become safer learning environment. Uttech (2010) explained that Restorative Practices in education provide students and educators with skills to address conflict, bullying and other risk behaviors together.
The underlying principle of Restorative Practices is that people are more empowered, productive and cooperative when those in position of power do things with them rather than for them. He added that a key restorative practice is the use of community circles at school. Here the traditional bullying prevention classroom meeting intersects with the restorative practice of community circles. We can revive a sense of connection and community through implementing community circles as a regular part of school life, not just a once a week event to talk about behavior. Saufler (2009) discussed the importance of the use of Restorative approach to bullies that have been a practice to some schools in Australia. The overall focus of the restorative approach is on building, maintaining, and when necessary, restoring relationships. This approach aims for proactive relationship building through a continuum of informal to formal practices. Informal practices include affective messages that communicate people's feelings as well as affective questions to help people reflect on their own behavior and how it has impacted others. Matthews (2011) divided the types of bullies into two, the Bullied Bullies and Cool Bullies. Bullied bullies were bullied at home or at school or both. They may have a little number of friends and have had low status amongst their peers. These are lonely type of persons. These people are the children usually responsible for school massacres who say that they cannot take it anymore. Cool Bullies are the well liked people who are perceived to be popular. They tend to be very confident because of the status that they are enjoying. McGraw (2008) presented the basic assumptions upon why bullies bully. Bullies are believed to have a notion that they have the right to hurt others. They like the act of taking advantage on others and they are seemed to be blinded to others’ feelings. These people tend to have a hard time accepting others’ differences. They may take out their anger or sadness on others. Bullies have no realization and may have a hard time seeing how their behavior might affect things over time. They tend to be seeking attention. Foreign Literatures Aurelio (2011) emphasized that educators must take an active part in fighting bullying. No matter the variations in incidence rates, the fact that bullying happens is enough to raise the alarm for child protection because of the harmful effects of bullying behaviors not only to the bullied, but also to the bully and the bystanders. There is a strong need to create an anti-bullying campaign in schools and it must include a counseling program that will cater to all who have been part of the incident. Rumaguera (2012) explained the best defense against bullying especially in the Philippines. She first explained what bullying really is. Bullying is defined as when someone keeps doing or saying things to have power over another person. Ironically, incidents of bullying in the Philippines are getting some international attention. The defense against bullying given was to know who are taking active participation, who is the passive one and who are the aggressive people in fighting bullying incidents. Patria (2012) wrote an article regarding the Department of Education’s stand against bullying. Interventions were the ideas that should be addressed to both bullies and the bullied in order to curb rising incidents of peer violence. The Philippine government’s education department has strengthened the program against bullying in the schools nationwide. Awareness level has been their concern since not all were able to distinguish what bullying is and how to help the bullied and bully. Lee-Chua (2012) explained the ways to avoid bullying. She stressed out education and information as the key to prevent such incidents. Discussing bullying in school and at home to know its characteristics like the aggression, power imbalance and repetition, the kinds it can take on physical, verbal, social and emotional aspect and the places it can happen like in school, home and cyberspace. Asilo (2012) highlighted that bullying is not merely a child’s play. His article proved that it is disturbing to see physical and psychological abuse being done by someone to others. He reminded that every educator in a particular school should be supportive, equipped and vigilant about the cases of bullying in school. Awareness and training should be given to all members of the community in order to promote strong program against bullying. Local Literatures UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF OPPRESSORS TO BULLYING: A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT
OF RESTORATIVE COUNSELING PROGRAM Review of Related Literatures and Studies Powell, in her study The Power of Positive Peer Influence: Leadership Training for Today’s Teens (1993) said that the Peer Group Connection (PGC) is a primary prevention program that enlists the power of peer influence to help teenagers cope with the universal, everyday problems and pressures of becoming young adults.
It has addressed important transitions in young people’s lives building into schools an important set of rituals and practices that reinforce healthy values in students and encourage critical thinking which is needed to be taught counseling sessions with restoring familial relationships. Chapter III Method and Procedure In getting the significance in the relationship of every area of the respondents’ person the researcher will use the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. This is to be done across all four areas of socio-ecological dimensions of oppressors to bullying to seek if there are significant relationships. Pearson's correlation coefficient between two variables is defined as the covariance of the two variables divided by the product of their standard deviations. The researcher will make use of Weighted Mean and Standard Deviation in order to know the level of influence from every area of the respondents’ person. The researcher will make use of Percentage Demographic Profile in order to know the comparison of the respondents’ score according to their Age, Gender, Socio-Economic Status, Family Background and Bully Type. Statistical Analysis of Data The researcher will then classify and get the students who were proven to be oppressors to bullying using the instrument. The researcher will rely on the sample size obtained to get the ideal number of respondents for the research. The researcher will write an informed consent to the school administrators for conducting the research in Colegio San Agustin. Once that the request is approved, the researcher then will give an instrument that will determine if students are engaged into bullying acts. The instrument will also measure the degree and type of bullying. Procedure For Perception about Family Relationship (Family Area), 4 – Has Very Bad Relationship, 3 – Has Bad Relationship, 2 – Has Good Relationship and 1 – Has Very Good Relationship will be used as scales. For Perception about the School’s Support (School Area), 4 – Not Supportive, 3 – Supportive to Some Extent, 2 – Supportive and 1 – Very Supportive will be used in the questionnaire. The other questionnaires that were made by Marilyn J. Sorensen, Ph.D. will be used will focus on the domains that were based from the Socio-ecological theory. It seeks to find the perception of the respondents in their Individual, Peer, School and Family Area. The Likert scale will be used in the questionnaire. For Self-Concept (individual area), 4– Very Positive, 3 – Positive, 2 – Negative and 1 – Very Negative will be used as scales. For Perception about Peer Support (Peer Area), 4 – Not Supportive, 3 – Supportive to Some Extent, 2 – Supportive and 1 – Very Supportive will be used in the questionnaire. A final section that all children are asked to complete, contains questions related to attitudes towards bullying behaviors. Based on this measure, children can be classified as one of the following: bully-only, victim-only, bully- victim, or not involved. The researcher will now get the students who scored to be the bully-only and bully-victim to be the respondents. The victim-only and not involved will not be included in the study since the research only focuses on the oppressors to bullying. Each of these sections contains a screener question at the beginning of the section that asks children to indicate whether or not they have experienced bullying during the past school year. If children respond negatively, then they are directed to the next section. If they respond affirmatively, children are asked subsequent questions regarding where and how the bullying occurred, who bullied them or who they bullied most often, how the bullying affected them, why they think the bullying occurred, and who was aware of the problem. The researcher will use a standardized questionnaire, The Bully Scale that came from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and Division of Violence Prevention that will help in answering the questions stated in the problem. The Bully Scale is a self-report measure that contains three main sections designed to assess behaviors related to being victimized, observing others being victimized, and victimizing others. Instruments Used The researcher will use a Purposive Sampling. The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on particular characteristics of a group, which will best enable the researcher to answer the problems stated in the study. Two characteristics of the respondents will be used in sampling. Only those who belong to grade 8, sections A-L and only those who have been identified to commit bullying acts using the Bully Scale questionnaire. Sampling Technique After the collection of data from the instrument, the researcher will apply the necessary statistical treatments for better analysis and inferences of the results. From these results, the researcher may draw concrete conclusions, implications, recommendations and a counseling program anchored by restorative approach. The Descriptive-Correlational Method was used in this study. This method of research is a fact – finding study with accurate and adequate interpretations. This method of research was used in the study to fully understand the oppressors to bullying by knowing the significance in the relationship of the Socio-Ecological dimensions of the oppressors to bullying to be able to create a counseling program that will be able to help them to change. Method of Research “One's dignity may be assaulted, vandalized and cruelly mocked, but it can never be taken away unless it is surrendered.”
― Michael J. Fox School Counselor. This refers to a person who is professional that conducts counseling related activities that promote positive development of his/her clientele.
Socio-Ecological Dimension. This refers to the person’s environment which affects and influences him/her in engaging to bullying. Psychological Aspect. This refers to how the person functions that is manifested in terms of his cognitive, affective and behavior.
Restorative Approach. This refers to a type of technique used that the main objective is to restore any damage that has been caused by unwanted behavior and/or life experience.
School Area. This refers to the explanation that the school support and personnel affects the functioning of all students. Individual Area. This refers to the explanation that individuals involved in bullying are more likely to experience significant depressive symptoms.
Oppressor. This refers to someone who is guilty of committing bullying violation.
Peer Area. This refers to the explanation that the peer group support becomes a major socialization force during early adolescence.
Relationship Area. This refers to the interpersonal characteristic of a person. Interpersonal involves the way a person relates with others. Bullying. This refers to continuous act in purpose of harming those they see as “weaker” or “different”.
Counseling. This refers to the therapeutic and preventive technique done by a professional counselor which aims to empower and guide the clientele in making right decisions.
Family Area. This refers to the explanation that family socialization may contribute to bullying. Parenting style and sibling relationships may contribute to understanding of the family connection to bullying. Bully. This refers to a person who is responsible for doing acts of bullying.
Bully Only. This refers to pure bullies who are usually popular and start the bullying incidents
Bully Type. This refers to the category of bullies. Bullies could be bully only or bully-victim.
Bully-Victim. This refers to bully who became a victim and started to bully others to compensate. The following terms were defined to further clarify the meaning as use in the study. These definitions would enhance a better understanding of the substance of this research.
Age. This refers to the age group that will be used in research. The age group will be ranging from 13 to 15 years old. Definition of Terms The study will be conducted in a single institution using respondents from a single batch (Grade 8 students) from School Year 2013-2014. The researcher will be using students from a single school year. Since it is observable that there is a large number in the student population, the researcher will just get an ideal sample size with a justifiable marginal error. The study will depend on the perception of the oppressors to bullying about themselves, their relationship with their peers, family and people in school. The study aims to create a counseling program only for oppressors to bullying. Scopes and Limitation For everyone, they may have a better understanding of oppressors to bullying. They may be able to reflect on their socio-ecological dynamics and know the underlying reasons behind it.
For future researchers, they may conduct the same type of research concerning the victims of bullying. For teachers, they may refer to this research for them to realize that bullying is a serious case and should not be ignored and they have important part to play in preventing it.
For school administrators, they may have better understanding of the school-counseling program and evaluate its effectiveness. This study may also help them in thinking about the possibilities of applying the restorative approach in preventing bullying. The study will greatly benefit students who are involved in bullying and people in the helping profession and education.
For students, they may have a better understanding of why is it damaging to bully others and promote a friendly school environment.
For school counselors, they may use this research as basis of considering restorative approach to counseling in helping their students involved in bullying incidents. Significance of the Study Ho: There are no significant relationships in the different socio-ecological dimensions of the oppressors to bullying.

Ha: There are significant relationships in the different socio-ecological dimensions of the oppressors to bullying. Hypothesis What is the perception of the oppressors to bullying on the following socio-ecological dimensions on the respondents:
Individual Area?
Self-Concept
Peer Area?
Peer Support
School Area?
School support
Family Area?
Condition of Relationship The objective is to create a counseling program that will help the oppressors to change. Specifically, it aims to determine the following:
What is the demographic profile of the oppressors to bullying in terms of the following:
Age?
Gender?
Socio-economic status?
Family background?
Bully Type? Statement of the Problem Conceptual Framework This is where the restorative approach comes in as it aims to repair any damaged aspect of the person who was involved in any bullying act.
John Braithwaite explained restorative approach as provider of a supporting philosophy for making, maintaining and repairing relationships and for fostering a sense of social responsibility and shared accountability. The restorative way challenges deeply-held notions about power and control and the urge to make things unpleasant for someone when they have done something wrong or ‘misbehaved’ like what punitive approach does to students. Social-ecological theory has been previously applied to the conceptualization of bullying. Incidents of bullying are phenomena that are jointly influenced by the individual, family, school and peer group.
Areas concerning the person who bullies are individual, peer, school and family. The classic ecological theory was used as basis to explain the interrelationship between the individual and multiple environments. The study is inspired by Socio-Ecological Theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner and Restorative approach to offenses.
Socio –Ecological theory views that violence is complicated and results from a combination of multiple influences on behavior. It is about how individuals relate to those around them and to their broader environment. Theoretical Framework Location of Colegio San Agustin, Makati City A globally attuned and progressive administration showing concern and service for all, a dedicated and innovative faculty and staff with a strong commitment to serve, and a dynamic and responsive student community with a heart for the poor and the needy and a mind in constant pursuit of truth and justice - these make up Colegio San Agustin, a school distinguished, not only, by its drive towards academic excellence, but also, by its desire to reach out and evangelize others for God’s greater honor and glory. The study will be conducted at Colegio San Agustin (CSA), Makati. It is located in Dasmariñas Village, Makati City. CSA is a basic education school run by the Order of St. Augustine, a religious institute which traces its origins back to its illustrious founder, St. Augustine. On 7 July 1969, the school opened its doors to the first enrollees, both male and female. Setting of the Study In a restorative response to bullying, children who have harmed others are held accountable by being directly confronted by the emotional harm they have caused. They are also required to play an active role in repairing the harm that has been done. It safely says that restorative approach could be the answer to bullying cases that schools are facing. Restorative approach aims to have a great impact on the well-being of every person who bullies and being bullied. Studies about bullying have been focusing in the characteristics of the bullies and victims. It’s about time to realize that there is something that has been damaged in the different aspect of the person’s individuality. Proofs that this technique is effective have been made known. Schools that promote and use the restorative approach to bullying have reduced peer aggression since their focus is on changing peer norms and behavior (Saufler 2009). The main focus of restorative approach is on building, maintaining and when necessary, restoring familial relationships. Awareness should not be the end of the program’s goal. The guidance center of a school should also design a comprehensive counseling program especially tailored for bullying. One approach that has been there since the early times and is seemed to be working well in some schools that embraced the use of the approach. This restorative approach to bullying has been widely used in Australia and the United States. At Colegio San Agustin, Makati City, studies proved that the students are aware of what bullying is all about. An action research was conducted to know the level of awareness of students about bullying. Students’ level of awareness since 2008 has been elevated through programs and symposium held by the school. The school’s guidance center has also promoted an anti-bullying campaign program which is known as the Pro-Buddy S.A.F.E. (School Advocating Friendly Environment). The lesson they learn is that aggression pays off. Research indicates that children who see violence frequently on television can become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others and come to view aggression as an acceptable way of solving problems. Children also learn aggressive behavior from the media, notably from television. The amount of televised violence children today are exposed to is simply astounding. By the age of 14, a child will have seen as many as 11,000 murders on television. The average cartoon depicts 26 violent incidents. Children see television characters get their way, settle disputes, and acquire things by using force without suffering any consequences. Those kinds of parents might support their child's bullying behavior by their failure to disapprove of it, or their outright endorsement of it. In addition, they often fail to model non-violent ways of dealing with social problems, so that their children don't learn the social skills needed to resolve conflicts through cooperation. A bully's education in aggression usually begins at home. Often, bullies come from households where there is little parental supervision and a lack of warmth and attention. Their parents might model aggressive behavior as a way of solving problems, and/or discipline through a combination of angry outbursts and corporal punishment. The message the children receive is that might makes right. Children are not born bullies. Bullies are made which means they can be unmade. They often are taught from an early age that the way to get what they want is through force. They learn to respond to challenges through confrontation, and to express themselves with their fists rather than with words. As they get older, bullies are at risk for further acts of violence, including frequent fighting and carrying weapons. Bullies usually choose as targets peers who are weak, unpopular, and unlikely to resist. They zero in on children who stand out in some way, such as the teacher's pet, a child with a speech defect, a slow learner, a child with big ears, and a child who wears the wrong clothes or the child for who English is a second language. Children bully for a variety of reasons. Some torment their classmates to gain a sense of power and control. Some bully in an effort to gain recognition and status from peers that they might not be able to get in other ways. Others bully to compensate for feelings of inadequacy. Still others target their classmates as a way of venting frustration with problems at home or problems in school, for example, learning problems or peer rejection and some bully because they've been bullied themselves. A typical bully is described as gaining intense pleasure when “tossing” another boy and seeing him “pitched bodily” on the ground. It’s no fun to him when no one is hurt or frightened. The bully is seen as exulting in the evident pain which every now and then he could see he was inflicting. Bullies are assumed to be more popular than other kids and have larger groups of friends. It has also been in some circumstances that bullies belong from richer families or are part of popular social groups. It has been proved that bullying is done on purpose, with the intention to hurt and/or embarrass someone. Bullies will do their attacks over and over again because they are always looking for ways to put their victims down. This is seemed to make them feel better about themselves. Bullying is still considered by many to be part of a natural course of events or even an unchangeable part of human nature (Watkins 2003). However, more than two years of extensive reading on the subject has revealed that bullying is a common and persistent problem in society, particularly in schools. One of the trending issues nowadays in counseling is the problem of bullying. Studies have already been done especially on the awareness of people about this matter in school, workplace, etc. School counselors play a major role in preventing bullying incidents and if it’s already occurring, in helping the persons involved to turn into fully-developed human beings. In recent years, bullying has been defined as a person or group of people’s continuous act in purpose of harming those they see as “weaker” or “different” (McGraw 2008). Many counselors have been dealing with designing comprehensive school counseling programs. This is a reality that these people have given majority of their time, knowledge, skills and counseling techniques in a single place, which is the school. Another thing is that most people in the counseling profession have a belief in individualistically - oriented counseling theories and techniques. Introduction Is there a significant relationship of the four areas in the oppressors’ socio-ecological dimensions?


What counseling program could be developed to help the respondents?
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