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Transcript of Karl Marx
Biography of Karl Marx
Born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Prussia (now known as Germany)
Karl Heinrich Marx was born to Heinrich and Henrietta Marx
He had eight other siblings
Both parents were Jewish but his father converted to Christianity in 1816 as Karl was baptized at 6
His father was a successful lawyer and was a fanatical activist for Prussian reform
Karl's Works: Capitalism
Karl Marx's Work: Alienation and Revolution
•(in Marxist theory) a condition of workers in a capitalist economy, resulting from a lack of identity with the products of their labour and a sense of being controlled or exploited.
Alienation was a state where workers under the capitalist mode of production become separated from them self, from their work and from their workers. Marx argued that labour is important to a human's sense of well-being and lets humans meet the needs of existence but capitalism takes away the workers' sense of humanity.
By: Terishea Ranganathan
Karl Marx was a :
In 1836, Karl got secretly engaged to Jenny von Westphalen whom he later married in 1843
Karl achieved his doctorate from the University of Jena in 1841
Started working as a journalist
In 1842, Karl became the editor of Rheinische Zeitung, a liberal newspaper in Cologne
In 1843, the newspaper was prohibited by the Berlin government and so Karl resigned on March 18th and in October, he moved to Paris
In Paris, Marx created a political journal called Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals), only one issue was published
Marx became a communist, and worked on studying political economy and the history of the French Revolution.
He wrote a series of papers: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, 1844), but they weren't published until the 1930s
In 1844, Karl's journal fascinated a contributor, Friedrich Engels who became Karl's lifetime friend and collaborator
Karl's and Friedrich's first collaboration :
The Holy Family
was published in 1845
Then Karl was expelled from France for writing for another major newspaper, therefore he moved to Belgium
Karl was introduced to socialism by Moses Hess
In Brussels, he wrote 'The German Ideology' where he created his theory on historical materialism, it was published after his death along with 'Theses on Feuerbach'
In 1846, Karl created the German Worker's Party to try interest all socialists around Europe
Karl then joined The Communist League, an organization of socialists (inspired by Karl)
Karl and Engels became the main theoretical force of the league and was appointed to write about a declaration of the League's position
Karl and Engels wrote the famous, Manifesto of the Communist Party to inspire social revolution.
The Communist Manifesto (commonly known as) was published in 1848
In 1849, Marx was expelled from Belgium and then he went to France where he was also deported from ; Germany also refused to accept him, so Marx moved to London where he lived till his death
Karl died on March 14, 1883 in London due to Pleurisy
In his memory, the Communist Party of Great Britain built a large tombstone and a bust of Marx, in 1954.
In London, he rejoined the Communist League and wrote more papers
He continued to work as a journalist for 'New York Daily Tribune' for 10 years, writing about 355 articles
He lived off Engels's earnings
Karl greatly focused on capitalism and economic theory as he published '
He spent rest of his life writing and revising manuscripts but none were completed for publishing
Mainly known for:
his interest in economics
his theoretical perspectives of political science and sociology
(social-political theory of Marxism)
The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx's Works:
Marxism is a worldview and a process of societal analysis that concentrates on class relations and societal conflict that uses a materialist understanding of historical development, and a rational view of social transformation
Marxist Sociology concentrates on:
The relationship between capital and labour
How the relationships of production creates social class systems and how these are related to other forms of oppression
The relationship between capitalism and class dynamics on the one hand and culture and cultural institutions on the other.
Karl Marx's work
Karl founded the conflict theory as he claims that society is in the state of a constant conflict due to competition for limited resources.
Social order is maintained by domination and power rather than conformity and consensus
Karl's Major Publications
The German Ideology (1845)
Wage-Labor and Capital (1847)
The Communist Manifesto (1848)
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859)
Capital (Das Kapital) (1867)
Karl Marx's Relevance in Today's Society
Due to Karl's theories of society, economics and politics are altogether known today as Marxism.
Therefore he concluded that
societal and historical revolution occurred through the struggle of class between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
capitalism shaped social life and many different types of social oppression
His answer to social inequality is socialism
About Conflict Theory :
studies competition between two different groups for power
this competition is created by the constant struggle between those who have political and economic power and those that don't
Karl concentrated on conflict in the economic system among the two different classes, the wealthy class of owners and the poor class of workers
The imbalance between the two groups is the source of constant conflict in society
Karl stated that those that have power, seek it to keep it away from those who don’t
Societies tend to further alienate the power, making them feel powerless
This theory commonly focuses on economic conflicts between the rich and the poor, but can also be applied to gender (the imbalance between men and women in society) and race (the imbalance of power between two or more major groups in society)
Capitalism is an economic and political system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
According to Karl....
he stated that the proletariat are exploited by the bourgeoisie as they provide labour in factories and farms and the goods that they produced are sold for more money than the wage of a proletariat. The bourgeoisie then gain profit and become wealthy through the labour of a proletariat.
He felt that this was inequality as the wealthy class ran the society for their own benefit.
Marx therefore theorized that the proletariat will be fed up with exploitation and domination and will overthrow the capitalists economy . This will result in new system
:(in Marxist theory) a transitional social state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realization of communism
Marx then argued that the society would become governed be the proletariat as he called "dictatorship of the proletariat" . He then concluded that socialism would then eventually lead to:
: (a political theory derived from Karl Marx) advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs
Karl's main statement was to
not just interpret the world but to change it
we need to change society in order to make it a equal place
Karl helps us understand capitalism today and the system of exploitation for the purpose of profit
The book discusses the division of society into classes, the phenomenon of globalization, global crises of overproduction, exploitation and oppression of women.
1. What was the main theory Karl founded?
2.What were the 2 groups of society that Karl discussed? Describe them.
3. What was Karl's solution to social inequality?
4.Name the 2 famous books Karl wrote?
5. What is the term used today regarding Karl's theories?
The Communist Manifesto
: the middle and upper class people that have economic and political power
: the lower class people that don't have economic or political power and provide labour
Karl explained how economics, politics and other social interactions were connected and how they impact social groups
He said that it's important to study economy to understand social changes
He explained the negatives of capitalism and that it can be solved by socialism/communism
He brought class/social acknowledgment to middle and lower class people
Some of his ideas of socialism are practiced in Cuba and parts of China and Russia today
He influenced socialists' thinking of the 20th century
He had also influenced Stalinism and Leninism (communism)
Marx's work has become greatly important to sociology as his ideas about power and exploitation help explain the reality of numerous inequalities in all human societies
His theories have stated how class conflict has changed society through centuries and made it useful in interpreting social issues
Relevance to Today's Society
Relevance to Today's Society
He saw society as divided by the rich and the poor
He states that those with the most resources and wealth exhibit more power over others with inequality and power struggles
He believed that mainly class, gender and race are greatly valued and those that are superior receive more authority
Marx stated if one is in the upper class, life was one of leisure and abundance, and on the contrary the lower class lived lives of hardship and poverty
Marx concluded one would fit in the social class hierarchy if they controlled the means of production, meaning who owned the resources necessary for survival
Society was divided in two groups:
The Bourgeoisie and the proletariat
The bourgeoisie were the 'haves' which are the middle and upper class people that have economic and political power . They also own land and run businesses and are also known as capitalists.
The proletariat were the 'have nots' , the lower class people. They don't have economic or political power and provide labour to the capitalists as they are poor
Marx deeply criticized the social-economic form of society, capitalism, which he called the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie,"
Karl's Class Theory
As Karl examined societies though their economic organization, he discovered that the Western society, mainly known as the Capitalist economic system is based on a system of property ownership and labour exploitation. Karl stated that society was ran by the capitalists ( a.k.a bourgeoisie) and was unfair.
As Marx was living in London at the start of the industrial revolution, He observed how factory owners exploited workers who worked for long hours and for little pay and had very poor living conditions.
More of Karl's Theories....
Karl was an average student, he was educated at home untill he was 12, then attended Jesuit High School from 1830-1835
In 1835, of October he joined the University of Bonn
Karl was imprisoned for disturbing peace and drunkenness, he was responsible for debts and he participated in a duel as a student
Later, he attended University of Berlin, studying law and philosophy
Karl became interested in a radical group, Young Hegelians, who criticized the political and religious establishments of time after learning about G.W.F Hegal's philosophy (his professor)
Karl had concluded that society changes through societal revolution, evolving to the society today
With class struggle and alienation,Marx theorized that with industrial revolution, the poor would rise financially and socially but that did not occur
Due to capitalism, Marx believed that the workers would become poorer and poorer and experience alienation as the workers becoming more distanced from their work
In addition, to replace this alienation and extreme social class structure, Marx believed that capitalism had to be replaced by a socialist system so all people's needs are met
Labour Theory of Value
Karl Marx was also known for the labour theory of value where he argued that the value of goods should be calculated in terms of the amount of labour that went into their production.
This would enforce some equality for workers as they will be paid sufficiently with the amount of labour they did rather than being exploited