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History Religious wars and state building chapter 5
Transcript of History Religious wars and state building chapter 5
•Philip II often needed bullion (gold/silver in bulk) to support wars, heavy loans (which he often refused to pay)
•End of reign, Spain's income spent majorly on debt payments, successors left in bad financial position
•Spain chiefly responsible for Europe's high inflation rate
Q: how did Spanish control affect the Flemish and Dutch speaking provinces? •1560's Protestant groups (mainly Calvinists appeared)
•Each province had local authority, Spain wanted one authority, meant less political/religious control with multiple
•Spanish tax in Netherlands was resented because it went towards Spain
•Resistance, William of Orange led it, 1566 major riots (Calvinists)
•New tax imposed, Inquisition introduced afterwards
•Thousands of people sentenced to death after riots
•1576, 17 provinces unite (under William of Orange), they agreed to disagree and demand Spanish withdrawal of troops
1579 – Spain made peace with 10 Flemish provinces (South), Catholic
•1609 – "United Provinces" – Dutch Republic peace made
•1648, independence recognized in "Peace of Westphalia" Q: How did Michel de Montaigne and William Shakespeare impact the literature and art in the west? -The theme of art often dealt with the nature of the human personality and the goals that a human being wants to pursue to be able to live a good life.
-Michel De Montaigne wrote at the time of the French war of religion and Europe’s encounter with the new world.
- His challenge to find what is barbarous, and adoption of moral skepticism toward his times gave people a new perspective to look at.
-The greatest dramatist of the period was William Shakespeare.
-His writings and plays reflected from the themes, nature of love to comedies about human faults to history about power and ambition, to tragedies about life etc.
- Shakespeare has an enormous impact on literature because of the transformations and developments in English language.
- His insights into the human condition still guide our perceptions of ourselves. Q: What are the main characteristics of the Baroque and the Mannerism period of art? - Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520.
-It abandoned the calm classism of the Renaissance; instead they found a style that used distortion and exaggeration.
-The paintings at that time were elongated with harsh colors and more vivid which attempts to evoke a strong emotional response. • Civil wars began in 1562
•France witnessed growth of Calvinism, Queen wanted Catholic France
•Protestants named Huguenots
•August 1572, Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot) married France's King Charles IX (1560-1574) sister (Catholic) on St. Bartholomew's Day (St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre) due to the slaughter, civil war worsened
•France suffered economically, politically, agriculturally, etc.
•1589, due to assassinations Huguenot Henry IV (1589-1610) became king
•Pope + Philip II of Spain scared of a potential Protestant France = support foes
•Henry converted to Catholicism to end war, tolerated Huguenots
• Philip II reign = began golden century of Spain, Spain became major west empire, art + literature flourished
•Philip II devoted to Catholic Reformation, church and state closely linked, spearheaded Catholic revival
•Philip II built the Escorial – residence, government, monastery, mausoleum
Q: How did England become a major power?
-In 1559 Anti-Protestant Legislation ran by Mary Tudor who was married Philip (King of Spain) and a devoted catholic
-Spain was the enemy to England and Philip Armada lost the Catholic Church in 1588 to the Church of England
-Puritans attacked the popery if they attempted any way of changing the English Church
-Elizabeth was cautious about costly wars and supported the French Huguenots without direct confrontation
-In 1570, Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth for Heresy
-After St Bartholemews massacre , England supported more of the French Huguenots - Philip ll was preparing an invasion toward England to restore the Catholic Church all over Europe
-Duke of Medina return to Spain with very few men and never flew back
-Armada travelled from May 9, 1588 (130 ships) and entered the English channel in July
-English: 2000 ships that were lighter and faster and seamanship were displayed better
-English remains protestant, Spain weakened, English and Dutch assured of survival
-The English lead to new markets and influence around world
Q: What were the main impacts of the Thirty year War? -In 1555, Peace of Augsburg: each state whether Lutheran or Catholic
- War broke out in 1618 in Bohemia
-> Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was in line to become emperor but became King in 1617
- Bohemia was Protestant but Ferdinand was a devoted Catholic and try to revoke the country
- the defenestration of Prague resulted in war (Protestant nobles)
-all of Europe was involved in the war and the most fighting was on German Soil
--> destroy villages, farms, murder, torture, women were raped
-four years of negotiation created the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 and ended the 30 year war
-settlement of religious compromise: Calvinism, Lutheranism Catholicism is a legal religion
-Holy Roman Empire ended, Germany were acknowledged as Sovereign after treaty was recognized
Q: Who was Marie Barast and what makes her the perfect example for witchcraft in this era? -late 16th early 17th century, witchcraft was a social issue
-witches: local women with special knowledge and powers, such as illness. Aged 30-50 years old and come from lower social status
-protestant countries were more intense about witchraft and England made it illegal in 1563
- suspected them if they breached charity, or neighbourly behaviour follow by if a child is ill or if a farm animal was dying - Marie Barast: French town in Clairac and was accused of being a witch
-People complain to court saying she’s poisoning or making people sick just after a bubonic plague occurred that killed many people in Clairac
-Nobody knows what happened to Marie Barast
-The style is especially linked with the Spanish painter El Greco from Spain and brought to his art a mystical quality influenced by Michelangelo. El Greco's "The Burial of Count Orgaz" -Many Mannerist painters expressed more thoughts into human nature and society, combining the Renaissance quest for truth with the spirituality of their time.
- Mannerism was thrived by the Baroque.
-The Baroque is an artistic period time that used easily interpreted details to produce drama and tension in sculptures and paintings.
-The Baroque is about movement, ornamentation, sometimes even excessive, and powerful to the senses.
- St. Peter’s Cathedral has many elements of the Baroque to display the majesty of the Catholic religion.
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de Óbidos, "Aeneas flees burning Troy," by Federico Barocci, 1598 Michel de Montaigne
(1533- 1592) William Shakespeare
(1564- 1616) By: Laura Jambrovic, Ashley Kim & Hridi Ridwa Religious Wars and Civil Wars in France Wars began in 1562 ended shortly after King Henry converted to Catholicism in 1593. Philip II and Catholic Spain Q: What was the price of religion in Spain? High Inflation Rate The Revolt of the Netherlands 1609 Peace made with Spain Literature & Art Michel de Montaigne pleaded for modesty, toleration, and respect for other. William Shakespeare transformed and developed the English language by inventing easier vocabulary. The different style of these painting is what made the Mannerism and The Baroque known to the world. Mannerism Paintings The Baroque Paintings Art: Mannerism & The Baroque England: Becoming A Major Power Faced with the Spanish Armada,Queen Elizabeth I Reviews Her Troops The Thirty Years' War Bloody battle between the Europeans in Guttenburg during the Thirty years' war Treaty between Dutch and Spain Witchcraft Thousands of Women were executed for suspicion of being a witch Q: What affect did the Age of Religious Wars have on the West? Key Terms:
Puritanism - a term first used in the 1560's, attacked any "popery" in an attempt to make the English church reflect their Calvinist beliefs.
Huguenots - French Protestants
Politiques - people from both sides, who are tired of battles. They were seeking political peace and the development of France as a state in which they could all live.
Bullion - Gold or silver in bulk before coining/weight value
The Inquisition - A tribunal of Catholic church, main function to seek out and punish heresy during the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period
Duchies - under the rule of a duke or duchess
Bishoprics - under the charge of a bishop
Treaty of Westphalia - 1648, ended 30 years war
Peace of Augsburg - In 1555, Germany; end of religious division.
Bubonic Plague - caused by fleas/small rodents
Mannerism - art style that used exaggeration and distortion
Baroque - art style used movement, ornamentation and sometimes excessive/powerful appeal to the senses
Anti-Protestant Legislation - Catholic's are against
Spanish Armada - Spanish fleet of ships that invaded England
Popery - doctrines, practices and ceremonies of Catholics - Northern European artist Peter Paul Rubens (1577- 1640)
- Painted a Medici cycle for the French crown and other works in England.
- The Baroque originated from Italy.
- The greatest master of Baroque was Johan Sebastin Bach who composed music and religious pieces. Key People:
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV - (1589-1610) Huguenot, eventually became King of France, converted to Catholicism to end civil war
Philip II of Spain - King of Spain (1556-1598), devoted to Catholic Reformation
William of Orange - leader of Calvinist Resistance in Netherlands
Elizabeth I - (1558-1603), daughter of King Henry VIII, leader of 4 million people
Marie Barast- a calvinist who lived in Clairc of France in 17th century, accused of witchcraft.
Michel de Montaigne (1533- 1593)- French essayist, who challenged notion of what is barbarous.
William Shakespeare (1564- 1616)- Delved into the complexities of our character.
El Greco (1541- 1614)- A Greek painter who's portraits became famous in the Mannerism period. - Invention of different art styles.
- Greater independence.
- Better English language structure.
- Broader range of religions.