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Transcript of Chemistry: Solutions
Homogeneous: it all looks the same
Heterogeneous: you can see separate pieces. Solutions have two parts:
1. Solvent: The part that does the dissolving. It is present in greater amount.
2. Solute: The part that dissolves. It is present in a smaller amount. Quiz Time Which is the solvent and which is the solute? 1. You mix creamer into your mug of coffee. 2. Your Sprite consists of syrup, water, and CO2 3. The ocean is composed primarily of water and salt. These examples show different kinds of
solutions. Mixing coffee and creamer
liquid-liquid solution Mixing CO2 into your Sprite is a gas-liquid solution Mixing salt into water
is a solid-liquid solution There are also gas-gas
solutions (air), liquid-gas
solutions (humid air),
liquid-solid (tooth filling),
and solid-solid (sterling silver) Dissolving is the key to solutions. In order for it to count as a solution the solute must dissolve in the solvent. Dissolve: to separate into pieces. Have you ever seen
someone try to add
too much sugar to
their tea? At first the
sugar dissolves, but
soon it begins to build
up, undissolved, on
the bottom of the glass. That means the tea was saturated. It had dissolved all the sugar it could at
its temperature and pressure. If a solution that has dissolved as much solute as possible is called saturated, what do you think a solution that has not dissolved as much solute as possible is called? Unsaturated Brainstorming: What does it mean
for a solution to be super-saturated? Think Fast! Super-saturated solutions are formed
by first heating the solvent so it is possible
to dissolve more solute. Then the solution
is cooled slowly. This type of solution is
highly unstable. If disturbed the solute will
precipitate quickly. Vocab 1. Soluble: a substance that can
dissolve in a particular solvent. i.e.
Sugar is soluble in water. 2. Insoluble: a substance that cannot
dissolve in a particular solvent. i.e. Oil
is insoluble in water. 3. Miscible: two liquids that are
soluble. 4. Immiscible: two liquids that do
not mix. If the attractive forces between the solvent
and solute particles are greater than the
attractive forces holding the solute particles
together, the solvent particles pull the solute
particles apart and surround them. This is the
process of dissolving. The process of surrounding solute particles
with solvent particles to form a solution is
called solvation. Solvation in water is called
During solvation, the solute must
separate into particles. Solvent particles also must move
apart in order to allow solute
particles to come between them.
Energy is required to overcome the
attractive forces so both of these
steps are endothermic.
When solute and solvent particles
mix, the particles attract each other
and energy is released, this is
exothermic. What determines how much solute
can dissolve in a solvent at a given
temperature and pressure? when a solute dissolves in a solvent
the solvent particles surround the
solute and carry them away randomly.
As more of the solvated particles
increases the same random mixing
causes increasingly frequent collisions
between solvated solute particles and
the remaining crystals.
As the solute particles continually
collide more crystals are formed.
As solvation continues, the
crystallization rate increases while
the solvation rate remains constant. electrolytes: solutes that dissociate in solution
-- conduct electric current because of free-moving ions
e.g., acids, bases, most ionic compounds
-- are crucial for many cellular processes
-- obtained in a healthy diet
-- For sustained exercise or a bout of the flu, sports drinks
ensure adequate electrolytes.
Types of Solutions nonelectrolytes: solutes that DO NOT dissociate
-- DO NOT conduct electric current (not enough ions)
-- e.g. any type of sugar