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Macromolecules (aka Legos)

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by

Dove Smith

on 23 September 2014

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Transcript of Macromolecules (aka Legos)

Macromolecules (aka The Legos of Life)
Carbohydrates!
Carbohydrates are a type of macromolecule made of: CARBON, OXYGEN, and HYDROGEN ONLY!

Carbs are broken down into sugar as a source of ENERGY

A simple sugar is called a monosaccharide (like glucose)

Two monosaccharides come together to form a polysaccharide like starches (potatoes) and cellulose (what makes up plants).

CRITICAL: Carbs have a 1:2:1 ratio
For every 1 carbon, you get 1 hydrogens, and 2 oxygen
Nucleic Acids
Monomer and Polymers
Let's pretend you have a brick house.

One brick is what we call a monomer.

Bricks (monomers) come together to make a brick stack/coloumn (polymer)
What are Macromolecules?
Macro means large
Macromolecules have a base structure made of Carbon.
Bones make our skeleton, and carbon makes a macromolecule (plus other stuff)
Carbon is an awesome element to use when building life because it forms FOUR bonds
So it can make rings, branches, or straight branches.
Lipids
Lipids are nonpolar molecules.
Nonpolar means that these molecules HAVE NO CHARGE! They HATE anything polar.
Makes sense right? Oil (Lipids/nonpolar) doesn't mix with Water (which is polar).
Lipids are also made of OXYGEN, HYDROGEN, CARBON (like carbs).
Lipids have super long chains of carbon and hydrogen. This is what we call a FATTY ACIDS. There are two types: Saturated and Unsaturated.






Lipids are used to STORE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY
AND INSULATION OF HEAT
You need to KNOW:
The Structure and Function of:

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
PROTEINS!
If you want to make proteins you need to start with bricks/monomers called Amino Acids.

Amino Acids are made of CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN and sometimes SULFUR

Amino Acids come together to form polymers called PROTEINS

Proteins are used for body MOVEMENTS and for ENERGY
Nucleic Acids are macromolecules that have only one function: They give directions on HOW to build proteins.

Ever heard of DNA? DNA are directions that tell Amino Acids how to come together to make proteins.

DNA is made of nucleotides.
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