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Transcript of Reading Cities
Urban cores become "deprived of residential components and breathing spaces" (326). A divide in cities between capitalist, economic, commerce and domestic, residential sectors occurred.
Concern for impacts sustained on the environment: greenery is introduced to assist with transitions. between buildings, streets, and open spaces.
International Style allows for any building to be accepted in any city of the world, no matter where.
A sense of Stadtkrone is conceived, where an urban city develops an identity (we-symbol). Toronto's Reasons to Accept the Urban Skyline Rome's Reasons Although it is arguably true that skyscrapers appeal to people who are interested in business, it is also true that older architecture appeals to people interested in history. Burj Al Arab London's Reason's to Reject AND Accept the Urban Skyline "In London people react with distaste at the erections in the vicinity of St. Paul's, at the scale and image of the Barbican" (333) "The alternatives are to discourage it altogether by opting as a community for a no-growth policy; or to regulate the proliferation, siting, and appearance of the skyscraper" (334) "As early as 1926, the President of the American Civic Association underscored this fatal flaw in the skyscraper mystique. 'There is a very close relation', he wrote, 'between the privilege to owners of erecting high buildings, and the burden thrown upon the community of taking care of the consequences' " (335). In older cities, skyscrapers are critiqued for their function - is it necessary to have new towering buildings when you have practicality in older buildings with historical value? This brings to light the argument between aesthetics and utility. Tourists travel to Rome to see old historic buildings, not skyscrapers. The 9/11 attack on the Twin Towers: arguably a building easily targeted because of its height. Ranked as the 15th largest city of the world, and the top in global financing; contemporary, practical, yet Post Modernistic designs of the city-scape and skyline must be implemented. Careful and purposeful designs encourage a globally competitive city to thrive and perform at the highest levels. Michelle Dubreuil Rebecca Frank
Sotonye Thompson Acceptance of Skyscrapers and Post-Modernity Cities that Prefer Skyscrapers are Driven by a Demand and Value for Practicality, Attraction, Utility, and Functionality Dualities and Double Coding Integrating and Separating Skyscrapers Bans have been placed on the replacement of many landmarks. "The true message of the skyscraper... was the celebration of one man's enterprise" (327).
The integration of skyscrapers "transcends the old order, and establishes a new one, at a level of quality good enough to justify throwing away the old" (334).
There will always be a competition for height. Height and domination are the "symbols of the city of man" (326).
Post modernity occurred when "civic beauty came to be rendered in Classical envelopes of marble and urban space" (325).
"Exciting, unconventional urban structures" continue to rise, especially in new cities like Dubai (323). Beginnings in America to Present The first skyscrapers of the 20s and 30s shocked citizens and architects. They were made "of metal-and-glass cages- towers and slabs alike" (Kostof, 331). The "impulse was to build monumental towers in commemoration of important cultural or political events" (320).
The 50s and 60s called for a Modernist overhaul in the skyline.
Strange "expressionist, Modern, and oval or shiplike shapes" dominated the skyline in the 70s (331).
The 80s brought Post Modernism to the cityscape, where modern designs were combined with traditional concepts (331).
Skyscrapers are currently regarded as a defense against overcrowding and overspreading in the future. Greco-Roman architecture has a focus on domes, columns and arches which add to the traditional values invested in the city. The Colosseum is a traditional building that features arches and columns and the Pantheon features the largest dome in Rome. Rome has very few skyscrapers: they are segregated from society whereas the historical buildings are integrated. These types of building aesthetically look more like highrises than skyscrapers. Europeans thought the skyscraper movement chaotic and the building itself inappropriate because "it was a monument to self-interest and aggressive competitiveness of capitalism" (323). Modernity excited the people of London as they began to formulate their own Stadtkronne: "A new, pristine, contemplative environment began to take shape, introducing new alternatives in a world of glass and colour" (322). Integrating and Segregating Architecture in Rome The Pantheon and the Colosseum are great examples of buildings in Rome which are in the midst of neighborhoods and widely accepted as cultural landmarks. This acceptance is juxtaposed against the rejection of the Eurosky and Europarco Towers which are alienated from the main districts in Rome. Segregation is evidently structured separate financial districts, residential communities, shopping areas, and heritage/historic sites. Westminster Abbey and Big Ben Significant districts Lloyd's Building (insurance districit) Tower Bridge 30 St Mary Axe (financial building that stands on site of deadly 1992 IRA terrorist group bombing that killed 3) Quickly,
A brief history of the Rome skyscraper; Mayor's building 2. The acceptance of skylines What we'll be discussing... -> Dubai Dubai Skyline: A Brief History 3. The acceptance & rejection of skylines -> London and Toronto It is one of the 7 Emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates located in the Persian Gulf . Originally a fishing and trade center between the East and West with origins mostly a mystery. Owned by the Maktoum family since 1883 till present. With the discovery of oil in 1966, the fortunes of the Emirates changed almost abruptly. Dubai’s reserves were limited and did not measure up to it’s neighbors so the focus was shifted from oil to tourism and capitalism. 1980’s: Start of the architectural and industrial boom. It became a “free-trade” hub, attracted foreign companies and investors. Creation of Dubai Internet city 1. What is the main purpose of implementing the skyscraper into the cityscape? 4. Does the city's skyline contribute to their overall pride? Burning Questions; Burning Questions; 2. How do London, Toronto, Dubai, and Rome differently and similarly make use of their need to expand to accommodate their commercial, financial, culture, or domestic needs? Dubai became one of the leading global financial centers- financial, tourism and shopping districts.
To compete with the leading cities in the world like New York and Chicago, Dubai joined and surpassed many city skylines.
With that came the construction of modern and innovative skyscrapers but was also influenced by Islamic/Arab architecture.
The city boasts two of the most famous buildings in the world: Burj Khalifa and Burj Al Arab.
The oldest existing building in Dubai, The Al Fahidi Fort which was built in 1799. (Now part of the Dubai museum). Dubai- Accepting Skyscraper culture 3. What other cities are similar to the extreme cities we have discussed, where we have Dubai on one end, a competitive and new city, and Rome on the other, a slow-paced city focused on past achievements? What makes other cities either reject or embrace skyscrapers? 5. Are skyscrapers best for cities? Isn't it true that the top countries of the world, that excel in finance and commerce, and capitalism, have cores densely saturated with skyscrapers? To expand, we know what skyscrapers say for a city, what do skyscrapers do for a city? Burj Khalifa Now tallest man made construction in the world. Construction began September 2004 and opened to the public Jan 2010. It is almost completely residential.
It was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merill – The architects of the Sears Tower in Chicago (Now the Willis Tower)
It is said that the building is inspired by the Hymenocalis flower which is local to Dubai. The 'Y' structure of the building allows for it to support itself almost entirely. Integration of the old and new Dubbed the most expensive hotel in the world (7 Star hotel) and also the fourth tallest hotel in the world.
Inspired by the sail of “dohl” which is a kind of Ancient Arabian vessel. (Islamic Architecture)
It stands on its own private man made Island and its construction was overseen by Canadian architects Tom Wright and Rick Gregory of WS Atkins International Style Fashion House on King St. West Typical style for high rise buildings include:
A. Tall with a square/rectangular base
B. Horizontal windows which form a grid Essentially a cubic style which can translate internationally. (Old) City Hall was replaced in 1965 by a new, more modern building. However, the old city hall has not be forgotten about and is still well kept and aesthetically beautiful. Toronto has a skyline and streets that are similar to those of Chicago and New York. So much so that Toronto acts as a stand-in for these cities in many films. Fun Fact! Total Recall was shot in Toronto, but the setting of the movie is on mars! The CN Tower, built in the mid 70's, was built to last. It's plan was to be always in style; never old. Its original purpose was to be a broadcast center, yet of course had to be aesthetically pleasing. The buildings prior to the tower were not high enough for transmission and television quality was poor, so the design by Canadian National (CN) was to provide a solution that would not only improve signal but as well provide international recognition. The old could always use a renovation ... Currently under construction, this new building integrates a historical building into a remarkable glass structure. It's location is in Toronto's fashion district. As the world developed, Toronto was current in style and was always moving forward. They (we) had economic success and many believed that was due to the ever growing businesses and high rises. As the years progressed Toronto dramatically changed towards a more and more developed city. As the city developed, so did our population. Today, our population has surpassed that of Chicago, which has always been known as an advanced and highly populated city. 1998 2012 1. The rejection of skylines -> Rome TD buildings at the corner of King and Younge.