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Copy of Migrants & Refugees

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Transcript of Copy of Migrants & Refugees

Migrants & Refugees
Who are 'Refugees'?
Representation of Migrants and Refugee’s in Film, Music, and Books
Stance of the U.S.
Who are 'Migrants'?
“Migrants are persons who leave or flee their habitual residence to go to new places – usually abroad – to seek opportunities or safer and better prospects," (IFRC)
“A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence.” (unrefugees)
History of Migrants & Refugees in America
4 Major Waves
First Wave:
European Settlers (1607-1700)
Second Wave:
Irish and Germans (1820-1870)
Third Wave: Refugees of
Eastern and Southern Europe
(1880-1940)
Fourth Wave:
Asian and Latin Americans
(1960-present)
The Displaced Persons Act of 1948
Allowed certain groups of European refugees, primarily victims of Nazi persecution, to gain permanent US residency
Arizona's S.B. 1070
However, there are still issues concerning immigration; Arizona's S.B. 1070
The S.B. 1070 is an Anti-immigration Law

Which allows police to detain or arrest someone when there is a reasonable suspicion they are illegal immigrants in the U.S.


U.S. Supreme Court
Stance of U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court has upheld S.B. 1070 Law.

The so called "show me your papers" law is still a requirement.

Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina and Utah have since passed very similar laws.




Broken Immigration System
Broken Immigration System
Past history of weak border control (security).

No "real" path for immigrants to obtain citizenship.

Employers taking advantage of undocumented workers.





Why is fixing this Important to Human Rights?
Less room for discrimination against immigrants

Gives illegal immigrants the tool to fight against discrimination

Gives undocumented parents an opportunity to stay in U.S. and raise their children



So what's the Stance of U.S. regarding Immigration?
The U.S. wants to continue securing the borders, but also create a comprehensive set of reforms that allows current immigrants to achieve citizenship and contribute to America.


American Civil Liberties Union
The ACLU is an organization that fights to defend individual rights and liberties.


Controversy?
The ACLU continues their fight against anti-immigrant laws such as Arizona's S.B. 1070 (and other laws inspired by it)

Claiming that these laws "invite rampant racial profiling against Latinos, Asian-Americans and others presumed to be foreign based on how they look or sound" (ACLU.org)
How will the U.S. achieve this?
President Obama's Reform Proposal:

1. Strengthen border security

2. Cracking Down on employers that hire undocumented workers

3. Creating Path for Immigrants to earn citizenship

4. Streamlining legal Immigration system
How to Fix it?

One of the key responsibilities of the developed world in global politics involves their assistance in the matters of human rights regarding migrants and refugees. However, in order for a country to lend effective assistance to a group of estranged or endangered group of people, public backing is necessary. What has become one of the most effective ways to reach the hearts and minds of the everyday person is through entertainment media. In recent years, a considerable amount of work has been done on the representation of migrants and refugees.
Films
After television, film represents arguably the most widely accessible form of entertainment. Therefore their role in sending messages to the people of those nations cannot be understated. Through the many different genres of film, the diversity they offer in providing information is boundless. Because of their ability to put faces on issues, films have seen a significant increase in their use on migrant and refugee stories in recent years.

Hotel Rwanda
(Historically Based)
Probably the most famous movie about a refugee story, Don Cheadle plays Paul Rusesabagina, the manager of Hotel des Mille Collines. During the Hutu uprising against the Tutsi clan, which led to the Rwandan Genocide, Paul takes in thousands of internally displaced refugees from the surrounding area, regardless of their tribal affiliation. He eventually ends up assisting in transporting many of them to safety out of the country.

Pre-Historic Migration Route
The first people to inhabit Europe originated in Africa.
Reason for migration was unclear
Food? Shelter? Left by force?
Did these humans have any rights as migrates?
Who made the decision to leave?
Greek & Roman: 200 A.C. - 400 A.C.
Reason for migration: economy and trade routes, Religious Persecution, crusades, or political conflicts
Rights? : Original inhabitants of Greek territory were not granted rights. Many were enslaved. Original inhabitants of Roman conquered lands were very welcoming and blended cultures well.
Post War: 1919-1924
WWII displaced millions
Vienna Declaration
1993
1990
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
RIGHTS?

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1951
Vienna Declaration
The World Conference on Human Rights urges all States to guarantee the protection of the human rights of all migrant workers and their families.
1993
1951
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
The Convention provides the most comprehensive codification of the rights of refugees at the international level.
Caribbean & Latin American Refugees
Post WWII Refugees
Middle Eastern Refugees
African Refugees
1990
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
"... shall apply during the entire migration process of migrant workers and members of their families..."
Sin Nombre
(Fiction)

Sin Nombre
follows a group of Mexican migrants who are intending to travel to the United States. One of the migrants is a former gang member who was forced to escape his home after killing one of his fellow gang members. He eventually meets up with a father, uncle, and daughter who are seeking a more honest goal of reaching the United States for work. This movie has a significant message in understanding those who choose to migrate to the United States illegally. Despite the hatred they are often met with, the movie teaches that they are often doing for just, human reasons.
Moving to Mars
(Documentary)
This film involves a little known group of refugees, the Karen people of Burma. After a military coup in 1962, there are still thousands of refugees seeking to find a new home. Through a documentary analysis the filmmakers analyze the lives of the approximately 150,000 refugees on the Thai border and their attempts to resettle in new homes in the west, a program that is gaining more and more popularity in the hopes of dissipating refugee camps. This movie seeks to highlight to the viewers just what kinds of lives these people live and how effective the attempts to reintegrate refugees can be.
Music
While film may receive the most high profile attention from everyday people, music has arguably the most widespread influence and has a great deal of value in spreading the sentiments and troubles of migrants and refugees. Although they are less capable of being as descriptive and informative as a documentary or book, they provide an emotional depth to a story in a relatively easy to digest piece of media.
“Waving Flags” by British Sea Power
This is a song which addresses the migrants of Eastern Europe in their travels to the western nations of Europe specifically England. The lyrics speak of the freedom of movement and fearlessness that these migrants move with, in their search of working opportunities and escaping unfair governments. It criticizes the negativity with which these people are met, speaking on the fact that if they work hard, they deserve to work. This conflicts with many anti-migrant sentiments that exist today, especially in the United States.
“The Refugee” by U2
This song is about the aspirations of an Irish girl and her hopes to leave the war-struck region of Northern Ireland and move to America. It speaks of how her father left to fight (presumably with the IRA) which means that her family was no longer safe where they were. Her family and her must escape Ireland as refugees for their own safety. This problem is representative for many other regions in the world.
“My People” by The Presets
This song talks on the issue of migrants to Australia being immediately detained upon entering the country. It speaks out against the practices of the Australian government and the inhumane treatment that they are dispensing to these troubled people. Despite the fact that these people may be illegally migrating, they are still human beings. This issue has seen increasing concern where migrants are being treated without respect or humanity.
Books and Novels
Books and novels are where the most detailed information on migrants and refugees can be garnered. Although it may represent the smallest market in reaching everyday people, it is at the same time essential because of how in depth they can be. They can provide the greatest wealth of information for those who are truly trying to educate themselves about a certain group of migrants or refugees.
A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier
by Ishmael Beah (Autobiography)
One of the most prevalent human rights issues today has to do with the child soldiers in Africa. This book offers the view into the life of its author, Ishmael, as one of those very children. It moves from his troubled childhood into his migrant life in America and how his past experiences affect his new life and his future. The story the books provides is becoming increasingly relevant in today's world and its role in spreading the knowledge of such people is indispensable.
The Kite Runner
by Khaled Hosseini (Fiction)
This is the story of a boy who lived through the fall of Afghanistan’s monarchy, through Afghanistan’s war with the Soviets, to his migration to the United States. Inspired by the authors own upbringing in Afghanistan, it received great acclaim and eventually was turned into a movie of the same title. The significance of this book was that it injected humanity into the Afghan people in a time where they were met with discrimination because of the war going on in their borders.
Coming Home? Refugees, Migrants, and Those Who Stayed Behind
eds. Lynellen Long and Ellen Oxford (Historical Volume)
This book provides an extremely in depth view into the circumstances and mentalities that drive migrants and refugees around the world. Although it may lack the personality and emotion of a well written autobiography or novel, it provides a wealth of information about many different migrant and refugee groups and their "home" lives. If one would want to receive an education on the many groups of migrants and refugees today and in history, this book delivers.
Stance of U.S. (refugees)
Refugees
Displaced Persons Act 1948

Refugee Act of 1980

3 Million Refugees
Current Media - United States
Migrant Children
US Customs and Border Protection on Flick

Children on the Run - UNHCR

Since 2011, the U.S. government has reported a “surge” of unaccompanied children arriving in the United States including Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

Current Media - United States
Migrant Children
58% of the 404 children interviewed in the UNHCR study indicated that they were forcibly displaced due to suffering or harms signifying the need for international protection.

Children on the Run - UNHCR

Children on the Run - UNHCR
Current Media - United States
Migrant Children
What is Being Done and Further Recommendations

“Congress, meanwhile, is divided on the issue. Two Republican-led House Committees are promising to hold hearings on the topic. One, the House Homeland Security Committee, is trying to figure out what's causing the influx in the first place. The other, the House Judiciary Committee, is holding hearings to blame the rise of child migrants on the Obama administration's immigration policies.” - Dara Lind

Family crossing from Guatemala to Mexico
Navy Bases In California And Texas Getting Ready To Shelter Hundreds Of Migrant Kids

This year around 42,000 people have attempted to cross the Mediterranean to Italy. Photograph: Ettore Ferrari/EPA

The UN is considering establishing refugee holding centers in north Africa and the Middle East due to the increasing number of migrants attempting desperate voyages across the Mediterranean in order to reach Europe.

More than 2,000 rescued migrants arrive at Italian ports

Italy leaves hundreds of refugees stranded without food – UN

Current Media - Europe
Individuals leave their countries of origin for Yemen for various reasons, including conflict, persecution, poverty, unemployment and natural disasters. Yemen is often a transit country for migrants and refugees hoping to reach wealthier neighboring countries.
Human Rights Watch: Refugees tortured in Yemen

A report presented by Human Rights Watch states that migrants are “systematically tortured” and oppressed in Yemen, while in the presence of Yemeni officials
Current Media - Yemen
So what is the Stance of the U.S. regarding Refugees?
U.S. offers a safe haven for refugees

Successful refugee admissions program


Stance of U.S. (Immigrants)
Adopted by the General Assembly
Put into effect on April 22, 1951
Has only 1 Amendment: 1967 Protocol which removed limitations and gave the convention universal coverage
a status and rights instrument
Conclusion
The stories of migrants and refugees are becoming more and more popular in the entertainment media as the years move on. In Hollywood, it has been proven that these movies both help raise awareness and can be financial successes at the same time, the same can be said of novels and historical books. Songs on the other hand have a much different approach. Bands use their fame to sing these songs and spread a message outside of and in tandem of the actual lyrics, bands like U2 are a great example of this. As the representation of migrants and refugees continues to grow in media, hopefully too, will their support.
# of World Refugees: 10,395,553
Country with most refugees: Afghanistan 2,664,436
1500-1800: Era of Religious Persecution
1800-1920: Industrial revolution
The Urgent need for International Human Rights instruments arises.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly.
UNHCR
Its primary purpose is to protect the rights and well-being of refugees.
Found in 125 Countries, helping over 30 million current refugees
Works hard to ensure everyone has the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State
Millions of migrants and refugees fled to the Americas.
Protestants and Catholics from all over Europe were forced to flee their land
Many migrants sought new job opportunities
How does this affect Human Rights?
Immigrants are discriminated against

Abused at work

Deporting Parents Hurts Kids
Why is this important to U.S. economy?
Increase American jobs and boost our Economy.

Fixing the immigration broken system will increase our GDP by 5.4% ($1.4 Trillion in Economic Growth!) by 2033. (CBO)

The U.S. is now working on a comprehensive set of reforms that will alleviate this issue.
Issues with Refugees in the U.S.
Cultural Adjustment

Trauma

Social discrimination and Isolation

Economic Insecurity
a U.S. legislation...
Hotel Rwanda represents one of the more significant advancements of the representation of refugees and migrants in Hollywood and the world.
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