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Air Mexico Flight 498
Transcript of Air Mexico Flight 498
Alex van Melle
Danielle Zink Air Mexico Flight 498 Flight Info Official Cause What Actually Changed? Human Error Mechanical Failure Latent Conditions Socio-Economic Impacts Victims Assistance Works Cited "Limitations of the air traffic control system to provide collision protection, through both air traffic control procedures and automated redundancy." (NTSB official report) Contributing Factors Accidental entry of the PA-28 into controlled airspace. Limitations of the "see and avoid" concept employed for traffic separation. Neither aircraft was equipped with traffic alert and collision avoidance systems (TCAS). Piper PA-28-181 Archer was not equipped with “Mode C” transponder which reports altitude (all light aircrafts were not required to have Mode C transponders). This prevented the controller from reading it's altitude. DC-9 was not equipped with automatic warning systems The majority of the blame was placed on the pilot of the Piper because he was unauthorized to fly in the airspace. ATC failed to notice Piper on radar. Air Traffic Control was located in a windowless room, there was no visual contact with the planes. http://articles.latimes.com/1987-08-30/news/mn-4984_1_air-traffic-control-system NTSB investigation showed that the plane did appear on the screen but distractions caused the air traffic controller to overlook it. The Piper's location may have been weakly displayed due to effects of an atmospheric temperature inversion on the clarity of the radar. http://www.airdisaster.com/reports/ntsb/AAR87-07.pdf Fear of flying in addition to fear of living next to airports http://blog.mysanantonio.com/vault/2012/10/two-san-antonians-killed-in-1986-aeromexico-plane-crash/ Development of ATC procedures to provide separation between high-and-low performance aircraft in high-density terminal areas Improvement of ATC radar capability Improvement of aircraft visibility (particularly light systems) 56 recommendations by safety board Recommendations to the FAA Accelerate the development, testing, and certification of airborne collision warning systems Require transponder equipment with altitude reporting around all TCA Add procedures to take appropriate enforcement actions against pilots who fly in restricted air spaces. New transponders that show altitude were added to small aircrafts Mode C Intruder Program - radar for ATC implemented that gives visual and oral alert when plane inadvertently enters air space Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) for all carrier aircrafts. Old radars at LAX were replaced New technology implemented Fatalities of passengers from Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, US Lawsuits for infliction of emotional distress On August 31, 1986 AeroMexico Flight 498 took off from Mexico City on its way to Los Angeles international with stops in Guadalajara, Loreto, and Tijuana. On the same day, taking off from Torrance California, a Piper Archer II took off carrying a family on its way to Big Bear City. The AeroMexico aircraft was a DC-9 with 58 passengers and a crew of six. The piper had the pilot and two passengers on board. The DC-9 was making its final approach into LAX, when at 11:52 in the morning and at an altitude of 6,650 feet it unexpectedly collided with the Piper. The collision knocked off the rear stabilizer and immediately plunged into the Los Angeles Suburb of Cerritos. The accident crashed into a neighborhood destroying many homes and claiming the lives of 15 individuals. Recommendations for Future Flights Many victim's families awarded compensation in lawsuits for losses Estrada family $4.7 million for damages and emotional distress City of Cerritos dedicated garden featuring memorial to victims Television show: Mayday S04E07 “Out of Sight” http://articles.latimes.com/1987-08-30/news/mn-4984_1_air-traffic-control-system http://www.pilotfriend.com/disasters/crash/aeromexico498.htm Flight 498: 58 passengers and 6 crew members Piper: 1 pilot and 2 passengers Ground: 15 people Fatalities and Destruction Destroyed 5 houses and damaged 7 others Both planes were completely destroyed
Value of Piper: $28,000
Value of DC-9: $9,500,000 Active Failures If the pilots did see each other they did nothing to avoid a crash. See and Avoid Visibility was over 14 miles in the airspace Piper: FAA Advisory Circular:
12.5 seconds to react Questions? ATC did not adequately warn the pilot of the DC-9 The Piper flew into a crowded airspace without proper equipment. Piper was flying with poor navigation devices and relying on visual landmarks below.
Unclear communication from Piper to Air Traffic Control. -Had an 80% chance of seeing the DC-9 15 seconds before impact.
-Lost therefore not scanning properly. DC-9: -Did not see Piper because of small size
-Bad cockpit design to obscute Piper