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History, technology after world war II
Transcript of History, technology after world war II
During the 1950s, the role of women was generally considered to be that of the 'homemaker'. Bright television and magazine advertisements encouraged women to stay at home and create a domestic haven for their families using the new appliances on offer. These devices promised to raise standards of living and release housewives from the shackles of household chores.
Electric stoves, refrigerators, toasters and kettles revolutionised the kitchen, and vacuum cleaners and washing machines shaved hours off time spent cleaning. Women could enjoy more leisure time while still creating a clean, comfortable home for their families. Many women chose to join the paid workforce, changing the shape of the Australian labour market forever. Housing Following the end of WWII, Australia experienced a major housing boom. It was fulled by a marked population increase and the pursuit of a new Aussie dream: to own a home in the suburbs. The rate of home ownership increased from around 40 percent in 1947 to over 70 percent in 1960 and sparked a massive phase of building and construction in Australia. Entertainment Television was introduced to Australians in 1956. Within three years it had cemented itself as the nation's primary source of entertainment. Television changed the way Australians spent their leisure time - people began staying at home, rather than going out to the cinema or other venues. Transport Communications Subscriber trunk dialling (STD) was introduced in the mid-1960s, allowing people to directly dial long-distance areas. This replaced the previous system whereby the phone user would dial the operator, who would then place the call. By Brandon and Jason social and cultural features of a post-war decade Technology has revolutionized since the second world war through factors such as:
Communications In the 1960s, continuing cheaper building technology meant that Australians could afford to pay for bigger homes. The addition of second bathrooms and extra bedrooms became common. Many families built a 'family' or 'rumpus' room, providing two living areas and some homes were air-conditioned. As car ownership increased, many new houses were built with a garage or carport. New building materials like plastic paints, linoleum floor coverings and laminex kitchen benches made household cleaning even easier. During the early 1980s, VCR technology transformed home entertainment. VCRs freed viewers from the constraints of television schedules, allowing them to record television programmes and watch them later. The VCR boomed in popularity, and spawned many video hire businesses. Cinemas, however, did not fare so well - many were forced to close, or slash ticket prices in order to attract customers Transport in the 1950s was crucial to post-war reconstruction efforts. The baby boom and immigration influx had prompted a rapid expansion of Australian towns and cities and trains and automobiles were needed to transport people and building supplies to the new suburbs. Road trains, which are large trucks consisting of many trailers, were used to service areas lacking in rail transport. The first Australian-made car, the FX Holden, was manufactured in 1948. Initially, the Holden factory could only roll 10 cars off its production line per day, but by 1951 production had accelerated to 100 cars per day. In 1953, Holden released the FJ Holden. It cost £1,074 - the equivalent of 68 times the average weekly wage. By 1973, almost three-quarters of Australian families had a home telephone. Telephone technology was constantly improving. In the late 1970s, the rotary dial telephone was replaced with a keypad model, called the Touchfone 10, making dialling even quicker. Fashion Teenagers were the driving force behind fashion in the 1950s. Up until that time, clothing trends had largely been set by fashion houses that catered to the adult market and the dress style of young people had simply followed adult fashions. As cinema, television and rock 'n' roll swept the world, however, the youth market clambered to copy the 'style of the stars'. Teenage fashion quickly developed into a huge industry in its own right.
During this period, teenagers also had increased buying power. Newly-affluent parents could now afford to give their teenagers generous pocket money, much of which was spent on acquiring the latest fashions.
The 1950s were a transition from the conservatism, restraint and formality of the 1940s, to a freer, looser, more informal style. Throughout the decade it became much more acceptable for males to dress 'for show' and both sexes became much more fashion conscious. Music The release of the vinyl LP (Long Playing) record in the early 1950s made it possible for people to play continuous music for much longer than before. With this new technology came rock 'n' roll, an exciting new American musical style.
Rock 'n' roll swept onto Australian shores in 1955 with the release of Bill Haley's hit song Rock Around the Clock. Originating in America, this new style fused black American rhythm and blues music with the white-dominated country and western genre.
Rock 'n' roll was fast, rhythmic and exciting, and audiences loved it. Young Australians gathered in dance halls dressed in the latest rock 'n' roll fashions and performed dances like the jitterbug and the boogie-woogie.
Elvis Presley was known the world over as the king of rock 'n' roll. During the 1940s, singers like Bing Crosby and Frank Sinatra had been popular, but their fans were mostly young adults. Elvis Presley, however, tapped into the young teen market and thrilled audiences with his original style of music and hip-gyrating 'bad boy' image.
By the end of the decade, the airwaves were dominated by rock 'n' roll and Australian rock 'n' roll artists like Johnny O'Keefe and Col Joye were also achieving considerable chart success Entertainment With a renewed economic optimism and willingness to spend, Australians in then 1950s could afford more entertainment products than ever before. Women were freed from time-consuming household tasks with the advent of many labour-saving home appliances and increased car ownership meant less travel time and more leisure time. Comic books were extremely popular in the 1950s and American toys like hula hoops became all the rage. Swimming at beaches was a popular new pastime, as more people learned how to swim and surf, lifesavers began to patrol beaches and swimsuits adopted a more comfortable and practical design. Sport Australia is often considered to be a 'sports mad' country. Our love of sport is reflected in the numbers of people who play sport, attend sporting events and view sport on television. Australia leads the world in sports science and in the technical development of television sporting coverage. The 1950s were a stand-out decade for Australian sport. Technology made it possible to watch sporting performances live on television and in 1956, Melbourne hosted the Olympic Games - the first time the games had been held in the Southern Hemisphere. British British settlers arrived in Australia in 1788 and the extent of the British influence is still evident today. The British Union Jack features predominantly on our national flag and the Queen is Australia's Head of State. British models also form the basis of Australia's legal and political systems, as well providing our national language.
Up until World War II, Britain remained the dominating cultural influence in Australia. Britons also dominated the make-up of Australian society - most of Australia's citizens were either born in Britain, or had British descendants. In the years following the war, British subjects were encouraged to migrate to Australia under an 'assisted package' scheme, which helped with the cost of migrating to Australia and provided housing and employment options upon arrival. Between 1945 and 1972, over one million British migrants settled in Australia.
Before 1945, many people, including Australians themselves, considered Australia to be nothing more than a British colony; a nation whose national identity was relatively indistinct from the British. During this period of Australia's history, our modes of entertainment, food, fashion, sporting culture and our social values and attitudes were largely dictated by British culture. 1950's