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The Evolution of Ballet

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Christine Shawl

on 2 September 2015

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Transcript of The Evolution of Ballet

Social Dance
Developed out of Social Dance
Social Dance
Benesh Movement Notation
The Evolution of Ballet
Dance in The Middle Ages -Renaissance
Early Court Dances
15th Century
16th Century
17th Century
Other Notation Systems
The Heart of Ballet Shifts Around the World
throughout the Centuries
Late Middle Ages Early Renaissance 15th Century
Romantic Era
16th-early 19th Centuries
Classical Era
Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries
Mid 20th Century
Court Spectacles
Demonstrated Power & Wealth
Solidified Alliances
Celebrated Occasions
Dancing was part of education
Place in the court ranks determined by dancing ability
First in Italy in the 1400's
Ballet is derived from the Italian word to dance "ballare"
Creation of the Dance Master
Member of the Court
Created & taught dances
National Ballet of Cuba
The Royal B
The Bolshoi Ballet
American Ballet Thea
Paris Opera Ballet
La Scala in Italy
National Ballet of Canada
Dancing Masters
Basse Danse - "Low Dance"
Haute Danse - "High Dance"
Partners move quietly gliding across the floor without the feet leaving the floor
Energetic dances with leaps and lifts
Balli - choreographed dances
Domenico de Piacenza
First Dancing Master
Wrote first essay on principles of dance
keep time with music
remember the steps
have a sense of space (floor pattern)
sway (upliftin gof the body)
demonstrate coordination, direction and shading (quality)
move gracefully
Antonio Cornazzano
Gugliemo Ebreo
Student of Piacenza
Elaborated on his ideas and wrote about the distinction between folk dance and art with an aesthetic in his book "Trattato dell' arte del ballare" 1463
Dancing Masters
In 1489, Bergonzio de Botto created the "Dinner-Ballet"
Created to celebrate a wedding
Storyline that followed the courses of the meal
Dance of the hunt - boar
Dance of the sea - fish
Dance of the Bacchus (god of wine) - dessert
So Ben Chi Ha Buon Tempo (video example)
Active jumping
Rhythmic stamping
Man lifts woman and turns
A Choreographed Dance Suite
Baldassarino de Belgiojoso
Italian Dance Master
Brought to France by Catherine de Medici & changed his name to
Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx
Created "Ballet Comique de la Reine"
Ballet Comique de la Reine
Created by Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx in 1581
Debuted in Paris as an evening long event
Considered the FIRST BALLET
Ballet Comique de la Reine
Famous for:
Length - over 5 hours long

Elaborate stage design and costumes

Based on the myth of the Greek goddess Circe
King Louis XIV
Royal Academy of Dance
Dance Manuals & Notation
King Louis XIV as The Sun King
King Louis XIV

Louis XIV Court dance
used as a metaphor for power of state

Established the Royal Academy of Dance in 1661

Establishes Dance as an art
Leads dance away from the courts towards professionalism
Patron of the Arts
King Louis XIV himself danced in court entertainments - usually in a stately role
His most famous role is as The Sun King
Pierre Beauchamps
Premier Dance Master of 17th Century
Served in King Louis XIV's court & The Royal Academy of Dance
Defined the 5 positions of ballet
Solidified the use of Turn-out

Jean Baptiste Lully
Composer for King Louis XIV's court and The Royal Academy of Dance
Reign: 1643-1715
Thoinot Arbeau
Published "Orchesographie" in 1589
A study of late-sixteenth century French Renaissance social dance
One of the most important pieces of information from the Renaissance era
The Royal Academy of Dance
Renamed The Academy of Opera
Lully renames it The Royal Academy of Music (with a dance academy within)
Renamed The Paris Opera - created the Paris Opera ballet school based on the technique writings of Raoul Augur Feulliet
Making the Paris Opera Ballet the longest standing Ballet School and Ballet Company
Fabritio Caroso
Published "Nobilta di Dame" in 1600
Raoul Auger Feuillet
Devised a notation system for Baroque Dance
Book "Chorégraphie, ou l'art de décrire la dance par caractères" (Choreography, or the Art of Dance by describing characters).
published in 1700
Translated by John Weaver in 1706 as, "The Art of Dance"
In Chorégraphie, Feuillet notated the five positions of the feet, the changes of body direction, and hundreds of dance steps, as well as numerous leg ornamentations and arm positions. The Feuillet system of notation was based on tract drawings that traced the pattern of the dance. Steps were indicated by symbols written on the right- or left-hand side of the tract. Bar lines in the dance score corresponded to bar lines in the music score that are printed across the top of the page.

Benesh Movement Notation (also known as "choreology" and "dance script") is a system of dance notation that can document any form of dance or human movement.

Invented by Joan and Rudolf Benesh in the late 1940s, the system uses abstract symbols based on figurative representations of the human body.

Like Western music notation Benesh notation uses a five line stave that reads from left to right with bar lines to mark the passage of time.

Because of this, Benesh can be presented with a timeline or musical accompaniment. The five lines of the Benesh stave coincide with the head, shoulders, waist, knees and floor (from top to bottom) and additional signs are used to notate the dimension and quality of the movement.

Benesh Movement Notation is used in the contexts of physical therapy, choreography documenting, and teaching the Royal Academy of Dance ballet syllabi, and is one of two dance notation systems in western culture.

At the public launch of Benesh Movement Notation in 1955, Rudolf Benesh defined "Choreology", or "dance script" as the aesthetic and scientific study of all forms of human movement by movement notation.

In 1997 The Benesh Institute, was united with the Royal Academy of Dance.

Labanotation, or Kinetography Laban in Europe, is a system of movement notation that is also used for dance notation. Invented by Rudolf Laban, it is one of the two main systems of movement notation used in Western culture.

The basic difference between Kinetography Laban and Labanotation is how the system is perceived:
•Those practicing Kinetography Laban (International Council of Kinetography Laban) believe that the system is based on spatial analysis. (EUROPE)
•Those practicing Labanotation (The Dance Notation Bureau) believe that the system was developed to record body movement. (UNITED STATES)

Although the abstract symbols represent Laban's work on shape, Laban's theories of effort can also be represented in Labanotation.

Motif Description is a subset of Labanotation that depicts the overall structure or essential elements of a movement sequence.

Labanotation is used in a variety of settings including Laban Movement Analysis, dance notation, documentation and reconstruction, Movement analysis, Robotics, Human movement simulation and Human movement synthesis.
Labanotation uses abstract symbols to define the:
•Direction of the movement
•Part of the body doing the movement
•Level of the movement
•Length of time it takes to do the movement

The shapes of the symbols indicate nine different directions in space and the shading of the symbol specifies the level of the movement.

Labanotation is a record of how you move so that you can do the same thing again and again.The symbols are placed on a vertical staff.

The location of the symbol on the staff defines the body part it represents. The centre line of the staff represents the centre line of the body, symbols on the right represent the right side of the body, symbols on the left, the left side.

The staff is read from bottom to top and the length of a symbol defines the duration of the movement.

Drawing on western music notation, Labanotation uses bar lines to mark time measures and double bar lines at the start and end of the movement score. The starting position of the dancer can be given before the double bar lines at the start of the score.

Spatial distance, spatial relationships, transference of weight, centre of weight, jumps, turns, body parts, paths, and floor plans can all be notated by specific symbols.
All members of society danced
Clergy, Nobility, Knights, & Peasants
Danced for Religious & Secular reasons
Religious Dances
Dances of Death - Danse Triste, Danse Macabre, Totem Tanz
Mystery, Miracle, Morality Plays
Secular Dance
Folk dances based on life-span events
Carole, Farandole, Morris Dance, Sword Dance
Entertainers like Minstrels traveled through towns with latest dances and fashion trends

Commedia dell'Arte - group of performers presented plays with specific characters ("straight" or "exaggerated")
Developed out of Pantomime

Harlequin is one character (sly magician in mask and cape) that has lasted in classical ballet
Video Example
Student of Piacenza
Wrote "Libro dell'arte del danzare" in 1455 a manual on dancing in the 15th century
Full transcript