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The Cyprus Problem: An Island Divided

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Natalia Kopytnik

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of The Cyprus Problem: An Island Divided

The Cyprus Problem: An Island Divided
Resolving the Conflict
Mycanean Greeks brought Hellenic culture to the island approximately 1400-1200 B.C
Incorporated into Roman empire in 58 B.C
Ottoman empire conquered the island and ruled 1571-1878
marked the introduction of Turkish minority, language and Islam to the island
peaceful bicommunal coexistence
British colony 1878-1959
July 20, 1974
Turkish armed forces invade Cyprus, take over 37% of the island
Blatant disregard for numerous international treaties (forbidden unilateral attack) (Kranidiotis 39-43)
Greece and Great Britain urge a peaceful solution, avoid direct involvement in conflict
Geneva Conference established joint responsibility between Greece, Turkey an Great Britain to safeguard the security of Cyprus (Kranidiotis 34-36)
Turkey disregards peacekepping efforts, resumes bombing of Nicosia
UN passes several resolutions urging an end to all military operations
Conflict Roots
Invasion of 1974
International Relations
Greek Cypriots were main force behind liberation movement
Enosis: movement of Greek Cypriots to incorporate Cyprus as part of Greece
strenghtened Cypriot national identity with that of Greece
British urged Turkish Cypriots to confuse liberation effort by forming their own interest groups
Cyprus as a strategic location for British
Turkish Cypriot minority became an obstacle for enosis in the eyes of Greek Cypriot
Social Issues
Greeks and Turks had coexisted peacefully for three centuries
No "Cypriots" , lived in a divided but accepting society
Greeks viewed themselves as "rightful" rulers of Cyprus, Turks seen as occupiers
constituted 82% of population
Clear cultural, religious division (Greek Orthodox vs. Islam)
Rarely intermingled, separate villages, intermarriage extremely rare (Dodd 3)
Turkish movement wasn't initially as strong as enosis, since Turkey had no claim to the island (Dodd 5)
Turkish resistance to Greek Cypriots and enosis heightened during this time
Trukish Cypriots did not want to be forced under Hellenic empire
Their ties to Turkey thus strenghtened (Dodd 8)
Influence of Kemalist regime on Turkish Cypriots
reactionary, growing extremist movement against Greek Cypriots
1931- Greek Cypriot uprising demanding enosis, further pertrubed Turks
Cyprus government became increasingly alarmed at development of Turkish nationalism on the island (Dodd 9)
KATAK (Island of Cyprus Turkish Minority Association)
Rauf Denktash & Mehmet Ali Talat
Continuing support from Britain to for Turkish resistance (Turkish Resistance Organization, Grey Wolves, Cyprus Turkish National Union)
1963 Turkish Cypriots withdraw from all government positions
This creates even stronger dependence on Turkey:
economic dependence of Turkish regions
implementation of Turkish settlers (eventually outnumber native T.C)
40,000 Turkish troops (Coufoudakis 4-9)
1967: Turkish Cypriots create separate administration, in violation of the Constitution of 1960
Social Issues
Political Issues
President Makarios proposes 13 reforms to the Constitution
majority of these are seen as provocative by Turkish Cypriots
Violent Turkish reaction, formation of seperate enclaves (Kranidiotis 16)
British intervention
UN mediation
1961: Turkish Cypriots complain that 70:30 ratio in the public sectors (as established in the Consitution) is not being met
demand seperate municipal laws, admininstration
Local talks between Turkish Cypriots & Greek Cypriots with UN supervision
Turkish demands:
local government should be left alone
federation, geographical partition , creating a state within a state
Greek demands:
agreed to more local power
did not accept creation of new state
Constitution of 1960
Treaty of Alliance
Treaty of Guarantee
1964 UN Security Council considers constitutional breakdown
Turkey wants Turkey-Greece talks
TNT escalates resistance to Cypriot authority
Acheson plan advocates division of island
problem: Turkish enclaves not concentrated in one region, scattered throughout island
Greek and Turkish Cypriots intermingled in communities
separation of communities viewed as unacceptable (Kranidiotis 21-23)
Galo Plaza Report - rejected by Turkish Cypriots
Turkey continues to promote federation solution rather than partition
Turkey-Greece talks prove fruitless
1967: Authoritarian government takes over in Greece
cooperation between Greeks and Greek Cypriots wavers
Extremists clashes, increasing pressure from Turkey (threatens invasion if Greece doesn't remove troops)
American intervention removes Greek troops from island, leaving it completely undefended
July 15,1967
Greek military junta overthrowns President Makarios
all proposals from UN seen as concessions from Turkish Cypriots
attempt to avoid upsetting ethnological compostion and territorial integrity
want to avoid forcible transfer of population (would destroy economic and social life of country)
aimed to preserve unity (Kranidiotis 41,45)
The Vienna Talks
The 10 Point Agreement
UN Resolutions
Accession to European Union
National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA) intitiated terror campaign against British and Turkish targets
Assassination and sabotage were main tactics
Frequent Turkish retalitory attacks
British deployed 40,000 troops to quell violence (Bercovtich & Jackson)
1975-76 both sides agreed to a series of negotiations under UN supervision
Turkish Cypriots: (Denktash) weak federal state, confederation, unwilling to give up conquered northern territory
Greek Cypriots: (Clerides) strong federal state wit no disitinction between ethnic communities, return of refugees, reassimilaition of Turkish controlled area
Little achieved despite pressure from Greece on Greek Cypriots
Little aide/pressure from British
Question of Turkish refugees on British bases :
return to Turkey (in some cases)
return to Northern Cyprus (encouraged separation of states)
return to Greek Cypriot communities (most unwilling, viewed as dangerous given recent violence between communities)
1977 Agreements
UN initiative
Denktash & Makarios
Makarios inititally seemed to accept the idea of federal soluion (advocated freedoms of movement, settlement and property)
each community would be responsible for governing its own territory
negotiated over percentage of island Turkish Cypriots would control
matters of importance considered, but not real action
April 11, 1979
Established future dates for negotiations and meetings
Set agenda for these planned meetings
Nothing really accomplished
"8. The independence, sovreignity, territorial integrity and non-alignment of the Republic should be adequately guaranteed against union in the whole or in part with any other country and against any form of partition or secession." (Dodd 142)
Resolution 34/30 (1979)
reaffirmed rights established before
demanded immeidate withdrawal of all foreign troops
called for voluntary return of refugees
Turkish outcry over "onesideness"
T.C. and Turkey outraged over resolution, vow "no concessions"
growing concern over independence movement in Northern Cyprus
influx of Turks into occupied area
Resolution 37/253 (1983)
repeat of 34/30
emphasized freedom of movement, settlement and property
addressed question of implementation
received poorly by Northern Cyprus and Turkey
Turkey convinced Turkish Cypriots would not be treated as equals in a Greek Cypriot dominated community
Northern Cyprus
November 15, 1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declare independence
Condemned by UN Security Council and international community
calls for immediate withdrawal of declaration
discourages international community to recognize Northern Cyprus' sovereignty
The Annan Plan
First draft in 2002
Reunification of Republic of Cyprus with Northern Cyprus
restructurization as "United Cyprus Republic"
would allow both Greece and Turkey permanent military presence on the island,albeit smaller
would create a federation of a Greek Cypriot state and Turkish Cypriot State
would create a Reconciliation Commission to bring the two communities closer together
Constituent States
Common State
Social Security
external relations
central bank functions
economic policy
trade policy
natural resources
indirect taxation
Chamber of Deputies: proportionate number of representatives from each state
Senate: equal representation from each state
President's Council: 6 members, also proportionate
Turkish Cypriot Concerns
1/3 -1/2 of population would be displaced because of territorial boundary changes
large number of Greek Cypriots inside Turkish state (54,000)
common state would be dominated by Greek Cypriots
EU legislation would lead to Greek Cypriot economic domination
Greek Cypriot Concerns
Common state too weak
Unequal voting arrangements
Feared the two consituent states would grow too powerful and undermine the authority of common state
wanted return of all Turkish immigrants from 1974 and on (45,000)
Referendum: April 24, 2004
75.38 % of Greek Cypriots vote against
64.9 % of Turkish Cypriots vote for it
83.9% Greek Cypriot
12% Turkish Cypriot
3% mixed foreign
0.6% Manonite
0.4% Armenian
Northern Cyprus
economic, social, political isolation
escalated after 2004 (Cyprus enters EU)
Relocation, urbanization, modernization and prolonged stalemate over reunification had redefined Cypriot society by the 1980s
Prior to 1974, both communities had lived in a relatively peaceful bicommunal setting for four centuries
invasion/division of island ingrained a severe divide between the two communities
flawed assessments of each others' cultures, history, interests
false understanding and excessive expectations of each side (Michael 109)
Invasion had displaced about 1/3 of the population
Caused a rift in Greek Cypriot society
large influx of refugees into Nicosia and other major cities
widespread relocation and emigration
sharpened divide between non-refugees (city residents) and refugees (usually inhabiting settlements on the outskirts of the cities)
The Property Dilemma
Turkish occupation forces pursued policies aimed at keeping the two communities apart
Government of Cyprus still provides free electricity, medical facilities and payment of pensions to the Turkish Cypriot community
Northern Cyprus: after 2004, boom in property development
especially on former Greek Cypriot property abandoned during the war
Loizidiou vs. Turkey
EU has upheld that Greek Cypriots must receive compensation for land in Northern Cyprus that has been taken over by Turkish Cypriots. (Dodd 256)
first negotiations begin in 1971
formal application for membership in 1990
EU Commission allows negotiations despite the fact that the island remains divided
hopes accession procedures might bring about resolution and reconciliation between the two communities
Recognizes only Republic of Cyprus as legitimate state and government
Germany initially only favored expansion of membership to Eastern Europe
Italy and Greece back Meditteranean expansion
EU agrees to accept Cyprus and Malta
Could divided Cyprus enter EU?
How would Turkey's own accession process be affected?
Response of Cypriot allies and EU members?
On Cyprus' Side
easily fulfilled economic requirements
geographically a strategic location
advanced infrastructure
large commercial fleet
Turkey and Turkish Cypriots attempt to stop the application process
argued that negotiations over Cyprus settlement would only continue if Cyprus withdrew its application
argued that only a united Cyprus could join the EU
argued that Cyprus could not join any international organization that did not include Turkey
Turkey's EU application rejected in 1997
believed Cyprus' entry into EU would be equivalent to the island's union with Greece (Coufoudakis 64-65)
Response of Turkish Cypriots
invited to participate in EU accession talks (goodwill attempt)
Turkey wants separate negotiations with EU
Mehmet Ali Talat (President) continues to question legality of Cypriot government and the validity of the EU accession
Greek Cypriot administration is not the sole governing authority on the island
defends Turkey's unwillingness to recognize Republic of Cyprus as legitimate
accuses EU of partiality towards Greek Cypriots (Coufoudakis 70)
Cyprus joined the EU on May 1, 2004
population 39,000, occupied by Turkish military in 1974
symbol of hostage city in Greek Cypriot psyche
resettlement of the city has been at the center of many negotiations
benefits for both communities: immediate reduction of Greek Cypriot refugees by 1/3
boost in inter communal confidence + revitalization of city as a tourist hotspot
no strategic value for Turkish military
not settled by Turkish Cypriots, could be ideal for economic cooperation between the two communities (Michael 72)
acceptance of Annan V by Turkish Cypriots showed that it was no longer a secessionist state seeking independence recognition
Turkish Cypriots with Republic of Cyprus passports considered EU citizens
Those born on the island have ability to obtain Rep.of Cyprus passports
Draft Framework Agreement (1986)
Set of Ideas (1992)
announcement of Greek Cypriot's plans to apply for membership to EU eroded goodwill from Turkish side
UN peacekeeping forces have been on island since 1964
As of May 2007, 856 military personnel
Budget of $46.8 million
Greece & Cyprus
Greece provides air cover for Cyprus
Greek Cypriot bases refuel Greek Air Force planes
Elite Greek troops bolster Greek Cypriot land forces
Turkey & Cyprus
Turkey refuses to withdraw troops (17,500) until it feels that Turkish Cypriot rights are effectively guaranteed
Promised $1.8 billion between 2007-09
EU proposed $307 million to financial aid to Northern Cyprus as a way to eliminate economic disparities between the north and south regions of the island
Wanted to allow Northern Cyprus to trade directly with EU member countries
Plan rejected by Greek Cypriot government
Accepted aid package
Stressed that any trade with EU had to be conducted through the south
EU Committee approved a $165 million financial aid package to Northern Cyprus
Turkish Cypriots said that they would only accept it if facilitated directly by EU and not via Greek Cypriot administration
EU had to open new office in Northern Cyprus to administer aid
Turkey accepted aid, but refused to consider opening at least one port to Greek Cypriot ships/planes
Refused to agree to let Varosha fall under direct UN administration for a two year time slot despite increasing pressure from EU
No agreements made
Economic Issues
Immediately after Turkish invasion:
destruction of Paphos cedar forest by Turkish Air Force bombing
lost trees valued at about 9 million pounds
Large scale livestock losses when animals were abandoned by fleeing Greek Cypriots
80% of citrus plantations destroyed because of inadequate access to irrigation
Territory lost to Turkish occupation
Famagusta & Kyrenia to main tourist hotspots
2 unique water where 60% of irrigation water was derived from
most important mine at Mavrovouni (60% of mineral resources)
quarries at Pentadaktylos
main port at Famagusta responsible for 60% of industrial output
2007- Cyprus signed an agreement with Lebanon to delimit an exclusive economic zone for oil and gas exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean
Turkey believes this agreement to be invalid because it does not represent interest of both communities
Cyprus began granting exploration and development licenses to international corporations despite Turkey's adamant protests
Cyprus' actions upheld by EU
Economic disparity between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot became most apparent in 1980's
1983 Greek Cypriot living standard more than doubled
Unification has great potential for economic convergence and bridging gap between the two communities
currently only south particpates in the euro
2008 Republic of Cyprus had GDP of 17.3 billion euro
North (reliant mostly on Turkish handouts) had output of 2.5 billion euro
Acceptance of a reunification settlement and admission of north into euro zone would greatly help the occupied territory catch up economically
Talat and Cristofias agree on idea of single citizenship and single sovereignty
Decision to resume reunification talks
Turkish harassment of Cypriot vessels erodes spirit of negotiations
UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon visits the island to encourage reunification talks
2011 marks 100th negotiations without resolution,l series of meetings throughout the year with zero agreements
Cyprus set to take over EU presidency on July 1, 2012
Turkey has expressed it will withold from negotiations until a different EU member takes over presidency
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