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Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Transcript of Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(2-3 years old)
Initiative vs. Guilt
(3-5 years old)
Industry vs. Inferiority
(6-11 years old)
Identity vs. Role Confusion
(12- 18 years old)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(19- 40 years old)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
(40- 65 years old)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
( 65- death)
8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
October 20, 2012
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development Stages
October 20, 2011
Similar to Sigmund Freud, but unlike Piaget, Erikson anticipated that personality is developed by a series of predetermined stages. However, unlike Freud’s psychosexual stages, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.
Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (Infants, 0 to 18 months)
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Toddlers, 2 to 3 years)
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool, 3 to 5 years)
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (Childhood, 6 to 11 years)
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescents, 12 to 18 years)
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adults, 19 to 40 years)
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood, 45 to 65 years)
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Seniors, 65 years onwards)
Infants require constant supervision and completely depend on their guardian(s) to nurture and care for them. Consistency of the caregiver is highly essential in order for an infant to build trust. With eye contact and touch a child can successfully develop trust and feel secure in their surroundings. Caregivers who are inconsistent and neglecting will give the infant a reason to fear and mistrust the world around them. The inability to trust can later result in anxiety, insecurities and low self-esteem.
Failure to respond appropriately: Julie (mother) has finally got the chance to take a nap after a long night with the baby. Ten minutes into her nap the baby begins to cry for milk. Julie tired, neglects the baby's cry. The baby continues crying; Julie furiously gets up, screams at the baby and shuts the door.
Appropriate response: Robert (father) is watching a game of soccer with friends. It is his turn to take care of the baby as Chelsea (mother) is catching up on her nights sleep. The baby begins to cry as it may need a diaper change. The game is getting intense, but Robert heads straight for the baby to meet it's necessities.
During this stage of development, toddlers require emotional support and comfort to achieve independence. This can be a delicate stage, mainly because toddlers are attempting to master skills such as walking without assistance, being potty-trained and etc. With reassurance and support, toddlers feel more confident to seize independence. Planning “play dates” for your child can help them interact with other children; encouraging them to communicate verbally. However, if a child is criticized, shamed or not given the chance to become responsible, he or she may feel incapable of completing tasks; further, affecting their self-esteem and confidence.
Example: When my younger brother was learning to potty train, we had him watch video's of his favourite cartoon's to help encourage him.
Around the ages of three to five, children begin to have role models; mirroring their behaviours. Children become fascinated with grown up activities like talking on the phone, driving, cooking, cleaning, taking care of youngsters, etc. What children learn from their surroundings are shown when they play with their toys and friends. It is beneficial to teach your child discipline at this age. Teaching children about gender roles, appropriate behaviours and values can also help guide them to success. Children should be given the opportunity to direct what they’re learning from their environment, otherwise they’ll hold back from expressing who they are and what they’d like to do. They will begin to feel unappreciated, uninitiated and lack self-confidence.
When I was young I would mimic my mother while playing with my kitchen set.
I would take care of a baby doll, again trying to act like my mother when she would take care of my younger brother.
Applying my mother's makeup on myself.
During this stage, kids begin to take pride in their accomplishments. Children start growing their social circle at school and are highly influenced by their new surroundings as well as their peers. Teachers begin to take on an important role as well, considering a student’s teacher spends more time with them than their parents at this stage of life. Children develop new learning skills; they complete assignments and achieve goals to feel satisfied with themselves. It is mandatory for a parent to make sure homework is complete daily. As well as establish expectations, set boundaries and enforce consequences. Teaching children goal setting skills is greatly essential for them to become independent. If they are rejected socially or feel inadequate, they may struggle to move past this phase of development and have self-esteem issues through other stages.
Example 2: Children see, Children do.
When I was in Junior School, I was greatly influenced by my peers to purchase Lunchable's as my Lunch.
My friend had got a Tamagotchi toy for her birthday. Being a little envious, I purchased one too.
I had decided to wear a poncho for picture day. My friend was inspired to wear one as well.
A popular girl at my Junior School had a pair of Barbie shoes, so all the other girls got the same pair.
During adolescence, our development is determined directly by our decision making as opposed to our surroundings. It is a phase of exploration in which we begin to determine our identities (ego identity), plan out our futures (career wise, etc.) and set goals to achieve them. We begin to withdraw from relying on our parents and peers for support and become more independent. It is crucial for parents to teach “adult” topics to their kids as the arrival of puberty brings about a sexual awareness and desire to experiment. Those unable to resolve their sense of self are likely to experience role confusion and identity crisis, which can lead to negative behaviors.
Around the ages of nineteen to thirty-five, a person begins to search for a long-term commitment with someone other than family members. The most vital event in this stage is a romantic attachment or relationship. This is also the stage in which most start a family, though this has been pushed back somewhat in societal norms today. If we are successful at this stage we find a sense of commitment and care within a relationship. If we do not resolve this struggle, we may experience isolation and loneliness.
At this stage, work is essential to our lives as we tend to be concerned with productivity as well as personal growth. As the biggest fear is feeling meaningless or inactive, keeping yourself occupied by volunteering, raising your children or working will help you succeed this stage. Also, by going through the “mid-life crisis,” we tend to struggle to find our purpose or greater meaning in life. If we become lazy and fail to grow or resolve our mid-life crisis, it generally leads to self-absorption and hopelessness.
Example: The Beckham's.
At the young age of 23 David and Victoria Beckham decided to tie the knot. This couple has succeeded the stage of Intimacy vs. Isolation. They have a lovely family and successful careers. Currently, at the ages of 38, the couple are busy raising their children.
Example: Around the age of fourteen, I began to recognize courses I was passionate about and would further like to pursue a related career in. I created a myblueprint account and searched for potential careers of my interest; choosing the path of nursing. In order to achieve my long-term goal of becoming a nurse practitioner, I set small goals; that I’m currently working on completing.
In this final stage, people reflect back on their lives feeling integrity; considering their accomplishments and contributions to society. However, if you were not satisfied with your life and were unable to achieve your goals, you feel despair and regret at your failures. Those who feel disappointed with their lives will struggle in accepting death.
Example: My grandmother, who is 94, spends her days at home with her grandchildren. She likes to share proud stories of her childhood with us.
Cherry, Kendra. "Erik Erikson Biography (1902-1994)." About.com Psychology. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.
Fleming, James S. "Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages." (2004): 1-12.
Gredler, Margaret. "Erik Erikson (1902–1994) - Career, Contribution."
McLeod, Saul. "Erik Erikson." Simply Psychology. N.p., 2008. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.
Unsuccessful completion: At the young age of 19, Lindsay Lohan was accused of having a cocaine addiction in 2006. By October 2011, she had already gone to rehab 6 times with the accusation of drug and alcohol abuse. Lindsay now confesses:
"When my father was going public, that's when I hit rock bottom," Lohan told The Sun: " I abused substances too much and it wasn’t the answer to my problems. People need to know that. I tried to mask my problems with alcohol, cocaine and mind-altering substances. I ran myself down and lost track of who I was. Now I’m in a place where I don’t need to use anything and I can feel emotions because I choose to… I was only aware of cocaine because of my dad."