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This Prezi was created for my thesis defense presentation on February 12th, 2013. The title of my thesis "Factors of The Increasing Number of Asylum Seekers in Indonesia (2008-2011)". Wish me luck for my thesis defense presentation :)

Denny Beryan Saputra

on 11 February 2013

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BACKGROUND OF STUDY PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND RESEARCH QUESTION RESEARCH METHOD The research has aim to understand about what are the pull factors and push factors of increasing the number asylum seekers in Indonesia 2008 till 2011. It is carrying out at both the 1951 Convention and the Protocol 1967 on the status of refugees as one of basis that given by international community. The research also explores the relationship between UNHCR Indonesia and government in Indonesia to discuss the issues of asylum seekers and refugees. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AT PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY
Prophet Moses
Jesus Chirst
Prophet Muhammad

The research used descriptive-analytical research method. This type of research will need the qualitative approach on the data collected and expressed in the form of words and images, the words are arranged in sentences, such sentences interviews between researchers and informants.

The sources will obtained through literature study, books, journals, newspapers, state documents, UNHCR Indonesia official documents, and internet as secondary sources. Besides, the writer was interviewing three people who deals with the problem everyday (UNHCR Indonesia) as primary sources in order to answering the research question and accomplishing the research. VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES

“The most robustly significant predictor of armed conflict risk and its duration is some indicator of economic prosperity. At a higher income, people have more to lose from the destructiveness of conflict; and higher per-capita income implies a better functioning social contract, institutions and state capacity.” and "The lower the GDP per capita in a country, the higher of likelihood in armed conflict.”


- Indonesia has not acceded to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the Government of Indonesia do not have any legal framework to deal with asylum seekers or refugees. Therefore Government authorized UNHCR to carry out its mandate activities in the country.

- Based on the situation of the biggest five countries is identified two main problems that mostly occur as push factors regarding the increasing number of asylum seekers in Indonesia. The first one is about economical and political issues that lead to armed conflict or war. Another one is violation of human rights issues during the war until now that was felt by the people who lived in that situation.

- There are two main problems as pull factors regarding the increasing number of asylum seekers in Indonesia. The first one is regarding to Australian Immigration Policies and another one is Geographical and People Smuggling Activities in Indonesia.

- Asylum Seekers and refugees are urban people in Indonesia, which is the daily interaction with the surrounding community; so that problems can arise because of social jealousy issues, security, culture, language, national law violations, etc. UNHCR Indonesia have a mechanism to collect and record all the problems that held each year, and this is where their set up a new program for the next year with the aim to reduce the problem. PUSH FACTORS FACTORS OF THE INCREASING NUMBER OF ASLYUM SEEKERS IN INDONESIA

- The Increasing of number of asylum seekers in Indonesia during 2008 to 2011 are influenced by several factors. Factors that made the increasing number of asylum seekers in Indonesia can be categorized into two factors; Push factor and Pull Factor.

- Push factor of asylum seeker is the circumstances in their home country and not always by reason of persecution, but also for economic reasons that make they left the shelter and look for another place to seek asylum and a better life. That needs to remember is the persecution in some cases to the early onset of the economic problem.

- Pull factor of asylum seeker is anything interesting and they could imagine in a country where they would go which are mostly developed countries; better life, employment, education, health and others. On the other hand, the state also has an interest in filling the many vacant jobs due to rough small number of residents and a variety of other reasons. The government of Indonesia is not a signatory to the 1951 Convention on refugees and its protocol. Indonesia does not regulate asylum seekers and refugees, but in fact as explicitly stated in Article 86 at Indonesia Immigration Laws (Act No. 6 of 2011) says that the Government will not enforce "Administrative Measures Immigration" to victims of Human Trafficking and People Smuggling.

Handling Illegal Immigrants with the status of asylum seekers and refugees at present only refer to regulation from Directorate General of Immigration No. IMI-1489.UM.08.05 on 2010, which are;

- The emphasis that the Foreigners who enter and stay without documents are Illegal Immigrants.
- Emphasis on Case Closed / rejected UNHCR will soon be deported.
- The emphasis that the holder of the UNHCR is not domiciled in Indonesia will be affected by the actions of Immigration.
- Illegal immigrants who have obtained refugee status Asylum Seekers or may not issue residence permits INDONESIA AND 1951 CONVENTION TODAY SITUATION AND

- In 1975, a massive Indochinese influx brought thousands of Vietnamese and Cambodian asylum seekers and refugees to Indonesia’s Galang Island. This historical momentum leads to the establishment of a UNHCR office in Indonesia. It then started its operation since 1979 and has its main office in Jakarta and a presence in Medan, Makassar, Kupang, Tanjung Pinang and Pontianak.

-The UNHCR Office in Jakarta works closely with the Indonesian government, non-governmental organizations and members of civil society in ensuring that asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia are not involuntarily returned to their countries of origin, or of former residence and have access to international protection.

“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”.

- Human rights violations occur when there are actions by the state (or non-state) actors’ which abuse, ignore, or deny basic human rights (including civil, political, cultural, social, and economic rights). Furthermore, violations of human rights can occur when any state or non-state actor breaches any part of the universal declaration of human right treaty or other international human rights or humanitarian law. CONCLUSION

- The allocation of this budget was transferred to UNHCR operations in Africa and some countries that are raging in war (Syria, DRC, etc) then UNHCR Indonesia will reducing the assistance to refugees that provided each month through Church World Services (CWS).

- UNHCR Indonesia placed fifth staffs in 5 regions of Indonesia beginning in 2008 and now there is the addition of one staff in Bogor, and it is possible to increase the number of staff in some other places.

- UNHCR together with its partners promote protection activities and assistance programms to ensure that their basic needs are met while waiting for a durable solution.

- UNHCR will also engage with States in operationalizing the Regional Cooperation Framework adopted by the Bali Process with the aim of improving protection space in the region and developing protection-sensitive responses to irregular movements of people and mixed migration.

- Protection strategies will focus on the establishment of protection-sensitive responses to mixed flow situations, registration, access to asylum, refugee status determination (RSD), and the promotion of alternative arrangements to the detention of people of UNHCR's concern. THANK YOU American History Balkan War
World War I and II
Russian Revolution
Jewish in Germany
Palestinian Refugees
Cuba Refugees
Pakistan and Bangladesh Issues
African Refugees
El Salvador and Guatemala Issues
Indonesia in 1998 Indochina Refugees Pre-historic Era 17th Century 19th Century 20th Century Research Question: The total of Asylum seeker that has been registered in
UNHCR Indonesia from 2008 – 2011
Source : UNHCR Statistical Online Population Database

What are the pull factors and push factors of the increasing number of asylum seekers in Indonesia (2008-2011)? DATA COLLECTION DATA REDUCTION PRESENTATION
FRAMEWORK Miles, Maththew B. & Huberman, A. Michael (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd Ed.) London, Sage. GEOGRAPHICAL AND
ACTIVITIES IN INDONESIA AUSTRALIAN IMMIGRATION POLICIES There are two main problems as pull factors regarding the increasing number of asylum seekers in Indonesia. The first one is regarding to Australian Immigration Policies and another one is Geographical and People Smuggling Activities in Indonesia.

- Location of Australia is adjacent to Indonesia that make Indonesia as a transit country before reaching Australia and this also makes the refugees musta pss through Indonesian waters to reach Australia even though some of the refugees who tried to get to Australia were caught by immigration in the waters of Indonesia.

- Indonesia is an archipelagic country, thus geographically there are so many gate to come inside to the country. Many immigrants find it as a golden chance, since the coastline of this country is also very long which will cause lack of the strictness from the marine police. The entry gates they used were located in several provinces such as Java Island, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Riau Islands and North Sulawesi.

- Most of asylum seekers and refugees try to make their journey by sea to Australia with the help of smugglers, the charge between US $5000 – US 6000 for reach Australia via Indonesia.

1. All the countries are expected to observe human rights of their citizens and implemented that any decisions should not always use violence.

2. All the countries are expected to observe and implement the principle of non-refoulement for refugees who come to their countries.

3. The Indonesian government is expected to think carefully if they have a desire to ratify the 1951 Convention, because the obligations imposed on the state ratifying very heavy when measured by the ability of Indonesia, many Indonesian people especially who live below the poverty line and in desperate also need of help from the government.

4. Indonesia should have a proper legal framework or specific law on asylum seekers and refugees that can be comprehensive and details standard to fulfill the legal implementation in order to address asylum seekers and refugee’s cases, now and beyond.

5. Increased cooperation with several countries in the handling of asylum seekers and refugees, particularly the source country, transit country and the recipient country or countries of refugees, so there is a permanent settlement and dealing refugees problem may not be solved by one country alone.

6. UNHCR should be more proactive to disseminate and promote the 1951 Convention and its 1967 Protocol. The implementation of a tighter consolidation must be done UNHCR and the government, parliament, National commission for human rights, local NGOs or international who struggle and engaged in human rights.

7. The need for assistance from the government to assist UNHCR work in handling this case in the form, legal, funding, etc.


- Immigration Service can not necessarily deport asylum seekers, because they do not perceive illegal immigrants as unusual, especially for asylum seekers who already hold a certificate as asylum seekers or refugees from the UNHCR.

- An asylum-seeker who wants to hold certificate as asylum seekers or refugees to claim a protection is assessed in an individual RSD procedure, which effectively starts with the registration of the asylum seeker. Following to registration, UNHCR Indonesia makes use of a qualified interpreter to conduct the interview of the asylum seeker. The interview process leads to a reasoned decision on whether refugee status is to be granted or not.

- In the handling of cases of illegal immigrants, those who have obtained asylum (Asylum Seekers) and Refugees (Refugees), as has been stated in the Director General of Immigration Indonesia, rule of Illegal Immigrants who have had these statuses cannot issue residence permits, and it will be the issue for Government of Indonesia itself. The biggest five of asylum seeker population in Indonesia from 2008 to 2011
Source : UNHCR Statistical Online Population Database

Afghanistan, Iraq, Sri Lanka, Iran and Myanmar are the biggest
five population in Indonesia by describing the situation of the
biggest five population of asylum seekers will give a point of
view and the similiarities that has made them as the biggest
five of asylum seekers population in Indonesia.

Based on the situation of those five countries that has been
drawn; the writer identified two main problems that mostly
occur as push factors regarding the increasing number of
asylum seekers in Indonesia. The first one is about economical
and political issues that lead to armed conflict or war.
Another one is violation of human rights issues during the war
until now that was felt by the people who lived in that situation. Thania Paffenholz, (2008). Underdevelopment and Armed Conflict: Making Sense of the Debates. Geneva(: Centre for Conflict, Peace and Development, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights

- Australian Labor Party government of Paul Keating established the policy of mandatory detention of unauthorized arrivals. The policy was designed to prevent circumvention of Australia's refugee immigration processes.

- It became increasingly high profile and controversial during the period of the Coalition Government of John Howard (1994 - 2008), particularly after a system of processing claims for asylum offshore at Christmas Island, Nauru and Papua New Guinea was established (The Pacific Solution).

- Kevin Rudd's from Labor government is replacing John Howard and announced in July 2008, that the "majority" of asylum seekers would no longer be detained and that "a person who poses no danger to the community will be able to remain in the community while their visa status is resolved."
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