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Canada in the 1920's
Transcript of Canada in the 1920's
excluded all Chinese immigrants between 1923-1947. In this amount of time, less than 50 were allowed to enter Canada.
In 1922 the Opium and Narcotic Drug Act was put in to place which stated that all immigrants with drug related convictions would be deported. In 1923 35% of deportations were caused from this law.
In the same year, the Order in Council excluded any immigrants from Asian ethnicity. However, British, American and citizens of preferred countries were welcomed. Later, the Chinese Immigration Act was passed by Parliament. This act
In 1925, the Liberals won the election with a minority government. King was in power supported by the Progressives. However, after a customs scandal was leaked, King was dropped by them.
He later asked the governor general, Julian Byng, to dissolve parliament and call an election, which was refused. King then resigned, and Arthur Meighen was asked to step up. The conservative government only lasted for 3 days before losing with a vote of non-confidence. An election was called, and King won. This affair clarified the role of governor general and Byng was the last British governor general ensuring Britain interfered less in Canada's government.
Monday, February 17, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Post war, natural resources were in high demand. Mining, paper and pulp industries were growing larger due to America's need for our natural resources. In 1928 alone, the northern mining industry came close to making $300 million, and the pulp industry doubled that.
However, those weren't the only resources in demand. In the prairies, the agricultural business was roaring. In 1928 Canada had become the largest wheat exporter in the world. American businesses also began to set up factories in Canada to avoid tariffs creating many new jobs for Canadian workers.
Canada in the 1920's
Prohibition was short-lived in Canada. In 1920, British Columbia was the first province to vote "wet." Within the following year, alcohol was able to be legally sold.
The "Noble Experiment" failed for a number of reasons. For one, it did not last long enough to have any real affect. The war was another main cause. Everyone felt like celebrating, or drinking away the memories of battle. Lastly, it was argued that prohibition violated British traditions of individual liberty.
However, prohibition may have been a great change for Canadian living. Crime hit a significant low and family life improved. But, enforcement was very difficult and new illegal activities were stemmed from it. Bootlegging, home-brewed "moonshine," and illegal drinking places profited.
CAN THEY BECOME ENGLISH?
The Indian act was revised in 1920, this forced all aboriginal children to attend an Indian residential school. The main goal of these schools was to assimilate the Indian population into the English population. The children would be taken away from their homes and forced to live in boarding schools under terrible conditions. They were absolutely forbidden to speak their native language. Children faced abuse, physical punishment, lack of medical care, and poor sanitation. This ultimately led to many outbreaks of tuberculosis and influenza. It is estimated that 4000 children died, and some schools had nearly 69% of their students die.
WOMEN ARE NOW PEOPLE UNDER THE LAW
During the 20's women found they had many new opportunities, and they were no longer restricted to being wives and mothers. In 1927 the famous 5 (Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Emily Murphy, and Irene Parlby) decided that women should have an even greater role in politics and they petitioned the supreme court to consider women for the position of senators. Unfortunately, the supreme court ruled that women were not considered “persons” under the law and were not eligible. Unaffected by the verdict, the famous 5 took their case to the British Privy Council where they won in 1929. From that moment on women were considered “persons” under the law and could no longer be excluded from things like university degrees or holding public office.
FIRST DIAL PHONE APPEARS IN TORONTO
INFLUENTIAL ON CANADA
Agnes Mcphail became the first women to be elected to the house of commons in 1921. This was a trying ordeal for her, she faced discrimination from other MP’s and harsh criticism from journalists. She worked tirelessly to improve the lives of minority groups and the working class and lobbied for equality. She was accused of being a communist and even of treason, but she never faltered or allowed herself to be pushed around. She was outspoken in her beliefs for women's rights and worked to abolish legal discrimination.
Emily Carr is described as a Canadian Icon; however, she did not receive recognition for her work until later in her life. She was and artist and writer, and her post-impressionist work was heavily inspired by aboriginal art. By 1927 people began to take notice of her work and the Canadian National Gallery requested her art in a west coast aboriginal art show. The following spring Emily traveled east, and was welcomed by the Group of Seven, accepting her into the group of leading modernists.
PROUD MOMENT FOR CANADA
In 1923, after years of hard work Dr. Frederick Banting, and Proffessor John Macleod were awarded the nobel prize for their work with Insulin. In 1920 Banting brought his idea of safely extracting cells that produced an antidiabetic secretion.
Banting and Charles Best began conducting experiments on dogs the following year. The tests were a success and the named the extraction Insulin. The team was joined by Bertram Collip, who worked to purify the Insulin for use in humans. In 1922 the team tested their discovery on their first human patient, 14 year old Leonard Thompson. The boy was close to death but after a few injections he showed rapid recovery. Insulin was a success and diabetes was no longer a deadly disease.
The '20s were years of new change for the people of Canada. New inventions, entertainment, and attitudes toward women. Changing the important values of past years made people feel bold.
However, that's not to say that problems didn't exist anymore. The gap between rich and poor continued to grow ever larger, racism was an issue, and Native people were forced into residential schools, to name a few.
Despite that, the 1920's were an important time for Canada to branch out from British traditions and continue to develop their own identity.