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Cellular Respiration

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Cody Millian

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is the process that converts the energy stored in the bonds of glucose to produce ATP, and then releasing waste products. All of these metabolic reactions and processes take place inside the cells of organisms. Cellular Respiration The job of the respiratory system is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Oxygen is an essential part of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration would not be possible without oxygen available to take the waste products of protein pumps being powered. The respiratory system also contributes to cellular respiration when it takes the carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration and expels it out of the body. If the carbon dioxide was not expelled, it would react with H2O and can be toxic to the human body. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth by the enzyme amylase. Amylase breaks up the carbohydrates into polymers. Next, the carbohydrates are broken up into a smaller form in the stomach by hydrochloric acid. If the carbohydrates are still not completely broken up, they are broken up in the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) with pancreatic amylase released by the pancreas. At this point, the carbohydrates are broken up into monomers, they have become glucose, fructose, and glactose. Digestive System ATP ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. ATP is the main energy transfer molecule in the cell. Humans use ATP constantly, it is where we get our energy from. Although the things that form ATP are adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups, it can't be produced without glucose. As the bonds of glucose are broken, the energy stored in the bonds is taken and used to form ATP. ATP can be produced by redox reactions using simple and complex carbohydrates as an energy source. Carbohydrates are hydrolysed into simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose. A human will typically use up his or her body weight of ATP over the course of the day. The job of the digestive system is to convert organic matter into a more usable form of energy. The digestive system plays a large part in cellular respiration. The digestion of carbohydrates is essential for cellular respiration to occur, seeing as both of them can be used to produce ATP. When carbohydrates are broken up by the digestive system, they produce glucose, fructose, and glactose. Glucose is the main ingredient in cellular respiration. Digestion of Carbohydrates Respiratory System Circulatory System The circulatory system is the highway of the body. The job of the circulatory system is to transport essential nutrients throughout the body using the bloodstream. The pumping of the heart sends oxygenized blood throughout the body and pumps de-oxygenized back to the alveoli so that carbon dioxide can be expelled from the body. This is important to cellular respiration because the oxygen taken in by the respiratory system has to be transported to the cells of the body by the circulatory system. Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. The equation that results in those products is actually the product of three separate stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. More oxygen and glucose supplied to the cell, results in more production of ATP. Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration produces ATP without the presence of oxygen. Under extreme exertion, muscle cells may run out of oxygen. Lactic acid fermentation is the type of anaerobic respiration that takes place to produce ATP without oxygen. Fermentation’s goal is not to produce additional energy, but merely to replenish NAD+ supplies without the help of oxygen, so that glycolysis can continue to produce ATP. Because pyruvates are not needed in anaerobic respiration, fermentation uses them to help regenerate NAD+. Glycolysis is the first stage of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. In glycolysis, ATP is used to split glucose molecules into a three-carbon compound called pyruvate. This splitting produces energy that is stored in ATP and a molecule called NADH. The cell must invest 2 ATP molecules in order to get glycolysis going. But by the time glycolysis is complete, the cell has produced 4 new ATP, creating a net gain of 2 ATP. The 2 NADH molecules travel to the mitochondria, where, in the next two stages of aerobic respiration, the energy stored in them is converted to ATP. Glycolysis The Kreb's Cycle - C6H12O6 + 2ATP + 2NAD+ = 2pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH After glycolysis, the pyruvate sugars are transported to the mitochondria. During this transport, the three-carbon pyruvate is converted into the two-carbon molecule called acetate. The extra carbon from the pyruvate is released as carbon dioxide, producing another NADH molecule that heads off to the electron transport chain to help create more ATP. The acetate attaches to a coenzyme called coenzyme A to form the compound acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA then enters the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle begins when acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate interact to form the six-carbon compound citric acid. This citric acid molecule then undergoes a series of eight chemical reactions that strip carbons to produce a new oxaloacetate molecule. The extra carbon atoms are expelled as CO2. In the process of breaking up citric acid, energy is produced. It is stored in ATP, NADH, and FADH2. The NADH and FADH2 proceed on to the electron transport chain. The Electron Transport Chain A great deal of energy is stored in the NADH and FADH2 molecules formed in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. This energy is converted to ATP in the final phase of respiration, the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain consists of a set of three protein pumps in the mitochondria. FADH2 and NADH are used to power these pumps. Using the energy in NADH and FADH2, these pumps move positive hydrogen ions (H+) from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. The H+ ions then flow back into the matrix through a membrane protein called an ATP synthase. The flow of ions through this channel produces 34 ATP molecules. The waste products from the powering protein pumps combine with oxygen to produce water molecules. Oxygen takes the waste products, which frees NAD+ and FAD to play their roles in the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Without oxygen, these vital energy carrier molecules would not perform their roles and the processes of aerobic respiration could not occur. - 10NADH + 2FADH2 = 34ATP Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to a three-carbon compound called lactic acid. In this reaction, the hydrogen from the NADH molecule is transferred to the pyruvate molecule. Lactic acid fermentation takes place in human muscle cells when strenuous exercise causes temporary oxygen shortages. The point of lactic acid fermentation is to produce NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue to take place, but lactic acid is a by-product of this reaction. Since lactic acid is a toxic substance, its buildup in the muscles produces fatigue and soreness. This means the removal of lactic acid from the muscles is very important when it comes to competitive athletes. - pyruvate + NADH = lactic acid + NAD+ Improving Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration Capacity For an olympic level athlete, the key to improving their aerobic and anaerobic respiration capacity is high intensity training with a nutritious diet. With high intensity training, your lung capacity will be increased, resulting in more intake of oxygen. The more oxygen that can be taken in, the more efficient aerobic respiration will be. In both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, a form of carbohydrate is required. In aerobic respiration, the use of glucose is required to form ATP. In anaerobic respiration, an even smaller, more broken down form of glucose called pyruvate is required to keep glycolysis and therefore the production of ATP going, even without oxygen involved. For an elite athlete, the bigger burst of energy produced in a strenuous activity, the better. This can be improved by a higher intake of simple and complex carbohydrates. Athletes should always remember, their nutrition is just as important as their training. Without carbohydrates, cellular respiration would not be possible. I hope this has helped you understand how the systems of the human body work together to make cellular respiration happen. Eat healthy and train hard. Good luck in the Olympics! Respiratory System: How it works When humans breathe, air is inhaled through either the mouth or nose. It then travels down the pharynx, through the larynx, and into the trachea. The trachea is a tube that branches into two bronchi, which then branch into smaller and smaller bronchioles within the lung. Eventually the air reaches the lungs and the clusters of alveoli. The blood is low in oxygen and the inhaled air is high in it, while the blood contains a higher concentration of carbon dioxide than air does. These two gases passively diffuse across the thin surface of the alveoli, sending the oxygen into the bloodstream and the carbon dioxide into the lungs. After gas exchange takes place, the oxygen-poor air is expelled from the lungs.
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