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How are rocks alike and different?

National Geographic Earth Science Book, Grade 4
by

Tyler Wood

on 9 June 2015

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Transcript of How are rocks alike and different?

How are rocks alike and different?
Chapter 2
Vocabulary
Rocks and Minerals
Properties of Minerals
Conclusion
Thank you!
Types of Rocks
Before You Move On
Be a Geologist!
You must determine the type of rock
Mineral
A mineral is a solid, nonliving material that forms in nature.
Property
A property is something about an object that you can observe with your senses.
I have
holes!
Grains
Grains are small minerals or rock pieces.
Grains of salt
Igneous Rock
Igneous rock is rock that forms when melted rock cools and hardens
Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock is rock that forms when small pieces of rock and other materials settle and get squeezed or cemented together
Metamorphic Rock
Metamorphic rock is rock that has been changed by heat or pressure.
Slate
The Rock Cycle
If the rock looks shiny like a piece of glass, what can you infer about its grain size?
Obsidian
What type of rock do you have?
Use the rock properties to determine your rock type.
Color
Color is the most noticeable property, but some minerals can be more than one color and different minerals may have the same color. Can we determine the mineral from color alone?
Streak
Minerals that come in different colors will have the same streak, making it a better way to determine the mineral than color alone.
Hardness
Can be scratched with a fingernail
Can scratch all other substances
Cleavage
This mica has good cleavage
because it breaks into thin, flat sheets.
Magnetism
Certain minerals act like magnets
Luster
is how a mineral's surface reflects light
Metallic
Glassy
Greasy
Dull
Reacts with Acid
Some minerals buzz or fizz when acid touches them.
What are minerals?
Imagine you have a mineral that is scratched by glass but not a penny. Which one of these minerals could it be?
gypsum
calcite
apatite
1. Cools from hot liquid form coming out of volcanoes.
2. Cools in chambers underground.
Igneous Rock
Sedimentary Rock
I have layers!
Metamorphic Rock
Extra info
Forms from pressure or heat from other types of rock
Imagine you have one type of igneous rock with grains too small to see, and another type of igneous rock with grains you can easily see. What can you infer about how the rocks formed?
Fossils in Sedimentary Rock
Review Quiz
What does igneous rock come from?
Magma or lava
How does metamorphic rock form?
It forms by heat or pressure
What is sediment?
Small pieces of rock and other materials
What is a common property for a metamorphic rock?
Hardness
What is the difference between grains of the two types of igneous rock?
The slow-cooling igneous rock will have larger grains
What makes the different layers of sedimentary rock look different?
Usually the color, sometimes different types of sedimentary rock
What rock do you have?
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
#10
Gneiss
Slate
Andesite
Conglomerate
Quartzite
Sandstone
Granite
Basalt
Marble
Shale
Sedimentary Rock
Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rock
Metamorphic Rock
Sedimentary Rock
Igneous Rock
Igneous Rock
Metamorphic Rock
Sedimentary Rock
Metamorphic Rock
How are rocks alike and different?
Full transcript