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Theories and Treatment of Abnormality: Psychological Approaches- part 1

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Desiderio IV Camitan

on 6 August 2015

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Transcript of Theories and Treatment of Abnormality: Psychological Approaches- part 1

Psychological
Approaches Theories and Treatment of Abnormality Behavioral Approaches Classical conditioning has been used to explain people’s seemingly irrational responses to a host of neutral stimuli. Behaviors learned through a partial reinforcement schedule are harder to eliminate compared to behaviors learned through continuous reinforcement schedule. combinations of classical and operant conditioning can explain the persistence of fears. people develop fear responses to previously neutral stimuli through classical conditioning. through operant conditioning, they develop behaviors designed to avoid triggers for that fear people can also learn behaviors by watching other people children are most likely to imitate the behaviors modeled by their same-sex parent some extremely negative behaviors are products of observational learning Psychology is the science of engineering behavior. Behavioral therapies are geared toward identifying the antecedent of maladaptive behavior and on changing specific behaviors. Behavioral Approaches Classical conditioning has been used to explain people’s seemingly irrational responses to a host of neutral stimuli. Behaviors learned through a partial reinforcement schedule are harder to eliminate compared to behaviors learned through continuous reinforcement schedule. combinations of classical and operant conditioning can explain the persistence of fears. people develop fear responses to previously neutral stimuli through classical conditioning. through operant conditioning, they develop behaviors designed to avoid triggers for that fear people can also learn behaviors by watching other people children are most likely to imitate the behaviors modeled by their same-sex parent some extremely negative behaviors are products of observational learning Psychology is the science of engineering behavior. Behavioral therapies are geared toward identifying the antecedent of maladaptive behavior and on changing specific behaviors. Cognitive Approaches our cognitions— thoughts or beliefs—shape our behaviors and the emotions we experience. when something happens to us, we ask ourselves why that event happened global assumptions- broad beliefs about ourselves, our relationships, and the world Cognitive therapies help clients identify and challenge these negative thoughts and dysfunctional belief systems. 1. I should be loved by everyone for everything I do.
2. It is better to avoid problems than to face them.
3. I should be completely competent, intelligent, and achieving in all I do.
4. I must have perfect self-control Cognitive- Behavioral Therapy The answer to this “why” question is our causal attribution for the event. The attributions we make for our own behavior can affect our emotions and self-concept. most negative emotions or maladaptive behaviors are the result of one or more of the dysfunctional global assumptions Some of the most common dysfunctional assumptions are: three main goals in cognitive therapy (Beck, 1976) 1. Assist clients in identifying their irrational and maladaptive thoughts. A client might be asked to keep a diary of thoughts she has whenever she feels anxious 2. Teach clients to challenge their irrational or maladaptive thoughts and to consider alternative ways of thinking. A client might be asked to evaluate the evidence for a belief or to consider how other people might think about a difficult situation. 3. Encourage clients to face their worst fears about a situation and recognize ways they could cope. CBT combines the techniques of identifying and changing problematic thoughts from cognitive therapy and behavioral change techniques from behavior therapy. People can get fixated at a particular psychosexual stage. Psychology is the science of engineering behavior. Psychodynamic Therapies Psychodynamic Approaches all behavior, thoughts, and emotions are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes suggests that hysteria is the result of traumatic memories that have been repressed from consciousness because they are too painful When a person’s behavior becomes ruled by defense mechanisms or when the mechanisms themselves are maladaptive, then these mechanisms can result in abnormal, pathological behavior.
“oral personality,” characterized by excessive dependence on others but mistrust of others’ love People with an “anal personality” are said to be stubborn, overcontrolling, stingy, and too focused on orderliness and tidiness. Unsuccessful resolution of the phallic stage can lead to several problems. children may develop inappropriate gender roles children may also develop unhealthy superego they may become overly seductive or sexualized and have a number of problems in future romantic relationships Freud’s followers modified his original psychoanalytic theory, leading to a group of theories collectively referred to as psychodynamic theories. Later Psychodynamic Theories Anna Freud emphasized the importance of the individual’s ability to regulate defenses in ways that allow healthy functioning within the realities of society. our early relationships create images, or representations, of ourselves and others. We carry these images throughout adulthood, and they affect all our subsequent relationships -Objects Relation Perspective Carl Jung argued that spiritual and religious drives were as important as sexual drives, and he suggested that the wisdom accumulated by a society over hundreds of years of human existence is stored in the memories of individuals.
focus on uncovering and resolving unconscious processes that are thought to drive psychological symptoms free association- client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, trying not to censor any thoughts. Transference occurs when the client reacts to the therapist as if the therapist were an important person in the client’s early development. working through- going over and over, painful memories and difficult issues, clients are able to understand them and weave them into their self-definition in acceptable ways Interpersonal Therapy focuses on the client’s pattern of relationships with important people in his or her life
therapist is structuring and directive in the therapy, offering interpretations much earlier and focusing on how to change current relationships. end of part 1
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