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Agroforestry Day

A full day lecture on Agroforestry
by

Joao Palma

on 28 September 2016

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Transcript of Agroforestry Day

Agroforestry Day
Benefits and typologies
Where is agroforestry?
Is Agroforestry new
(in Europe?)
Recent Developments of AF in Europe
Agroforestry
Stakes and perpectives
Contents
Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In agroforestry systems there are both ecological and economical interactions between the different components (Lundgren and Raintree, 1982).
Traditional
Modern
Modelling
YieldSAFE
forthcommings
Improvements under AGFORWARD project
Associate models of ecosystem services (soil erosion, nitrogen leaching,soil carbon)
Implement model under a user friendly web application
incorporate optimization procedures in calibrarion
Calibrate new species
Models
Agroforestry Models
YieldSAFE
Use of YieldSAFE
Willow + oats, UK (source: ORC)
Holm oak + wheat, PT. Source: João Palma
Cork oak + wheat, PT. Source: João Palma
Oak + wheat/clover + sheep, IT. Source: P. Paris
Benefits
Typologies
Poverty reduction
by increased production and income;
Maintenance or restoration of soil fertility
for food crops, increasing food security;
Decrease of nutrient loss and soil runoff
, with improvement of natural water quality;
Reduction of pressure on woodlands
by providing farm-grown timber and/or fuel wood;
Reduction or elimination of the need for toxic chemicals
(as insecticides and herbicides) by land use diversity and natural methods of pest and vegetation control;
Improvement of human health by diversity of edible farm products
and maintenance of space for medicinal traditional plants;
Environmental benefits
such as (i) countering global warming and risk of hunger by drought-resistant trees producing edible components (fruits, nuts, edible oils), (ii) carbon sequestration, (iii) wildlife habitat enhancement, (iv) improvement of landscape quality and aesthetical value;

Shifting cultivation
Improved fallow
Taungya type
Multi-strata systems
Sequential
Simoultaneous
Shaded perennial crops;
Forest farming;
Agroforests, tropical home gardens, forest gardening, or multi-stratified agroforestry systems
Agrosilvopastoral systems
Boundary systems: living fences, windbreaks and riparian buffers
Alley cropping (farm cultures between tree alignments)
SHIFTING CULTIVATION
Consists on tree harvest followed (or not) by plant biomass burning (slash-and burn method); cleared plots are cultivated until the soil starts to be exhausted or the field develops too many weeds, and are then abandoned when cultivation moves on to a new plot
It may use simple migratory cultivation, or slash-and-burn methods
Shifting cultivation is mostly (and typically) subsistence-oriented and only occasionally for cash by selling of production surplus
It is only possible under low demand of arable land, so that the soil and vegetation may recover and allow a new cultivation cycle
It may be relatively sophisticated, with organised recollection of timber and wild fruits before and/or after cultivation

IMPROVED FALLOWS
Consists in alternating classical agriculture (e. g., cereals) with a fallow period, but improving soil recovery by planting tree or shrub species to accelerate the process
Use of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing species (mainly Fabaceae) is frequent to complement the simple improvement of top soil organic layers
The tree or shrub species installed to improve the fallow may be economically harvested (fire wood, leaves, fruits, fodder, …)

TAUNGYA SYSTEM
Consists in using the early growth stages of forest plantations for agriculture in the open spaces between tree alignments
The agricultural practices and the crop harvest are beneficial to the tree plantation through the control of competitive natural vegetation
After a variable time-span – typically 2-3 years – tree shadow may gradually became inhibitory of crop production
In Africa and Asia this system is typically associated to teak (Tectona grandis), and pine (Pinus spp.) and cypress (Cupressus spp.) plantations.

MULTI-STRATA SYSTEMS
They are based on a simulation of the ecological succession after deforestation, using cultivated plants and facilitation techniques
Development stages may be approximately described as follows:
Stage of pioneer species staying 1 year or less (corn, peanut, rice)
Secondary species with a biological cycle of 2 years or less (papaya, sugar cane, manioc [or cassava], pineapple/abacaxi)
Stage of perennial secondary species staying until 15 years, maintaining some of the previous crops (e. g. pineapple) and including banana tree, sugar-apple, cocoa and others
Stage of perennial woody species staying until 80 years (coffee, teak, avocado and others), maintaining some of the previous crops
Final stage with wood and fruit producing trees (Cedrella spp., Hevea brasiliensis, Ceiba pentandra), keeping under tree cover some of the previous crops

The key factor
for maintenance of the cultural system
is management of organic matter
produced and released to the soil by the perennial species; these systems tend to approach the simultaneous systems of the forest gardening, or tropical home garden type

Almost everywhere
Model
Field measurements
Concept model development
purpose of the model
empirical or process based
data needed, ...
Calibration
Validation
Sensitivity
(Statistics)
Uncertainty
Yield-SAFE
Yield Estimator for Long-term
Design of Silvoarable Agro-Forestry for Europe
Article
YieldSAFE Concept - Radiation distribution
YieldSAFE Concept - Water distribution
INPUTS
State
Variables
Hybridization
Model Structure
Driven Forces: Daily Climate
Radiation (MJ/m2)
Temperature (ºC)
Rain (mm)
Biophysical initialization
Initial Biomass
Initial Leaf Area
Initial soil water content
...
Management
TREE:
Planting density
Prunning DOY
Thinning DOY
Proportion biomass prunned
Irrigation periodicity (facultative)
...
CROP:
Crop rotation
Planting DOY
Harvesting DOY
...
Parameters
TREE PARAMETERS
CROP PARAMETERS
SOIL PARAMETERS
TREE Biomass
TREE Leaf Area
TREE Transpiration
CROP Biomass
CROP Leaf Area
CROP Transpiration
SOIL water content
SOIL Evaporation
...
(outputs)
(other state variables outputs)
Basal Area
Tree/Stand Height
Tree/Stand Diameter
Tree/Stand Volume
...
Model Validation
Model Equations
Potential TREE Growth
Water limited TREE Growth
Water Use by TREE
Leaf Area by tree
Number of Shoots per TREE
TREE Prunning and Thinning
Potential CROP Growth
Water limited CROP Growth
Water used by CROP
Leaf Area of CROP
Heat SUM
Partitioning of dry matter to leaves in the CROP
SOIL Water content
SOIL pF
SOIL Drainage
SOIL Evaporation
Please download article for equation details
YS Flow
YS Family
van der Werf et al. 2007
Ecological Engineering 29, 419-433
Validation - Poplar
Validation - Walnut, Cherry, Oak, Pine
Validation - Soil
Irrigated Maize, Turkey
Mayus et al, 2007, Lecture Notes in Informatics
http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings101/gi-proc-101-033.pdf
Model uses van Genuchten equations for soil tension (pF)
Parameters at EU level for the equation, published by Wösten et al (1999), can be used in model
Model just needs texture (FAO classes - 1 to 5) and soil depth
comparison with parameter intense models
STICS -
Crop model, France
Modeled Wheat, Wageningen (NL)
CABALA -
Forest model, Australia, Modeled Eucalyptus, (several AU)
Model Exploration
Water dynamics in AF systems
Example during 365 days in a mature system with 113 trees/ha
cumulated values 365 days
Higher ET
Lower soil evaporation
Higher efficiency!
radiation dynamics in AF systems
Example during 365 days in a mature system with 113 trees/ha
cumulated values 365 days
Higher efficiency
Some examples of modern
silvoarable agroforestry systems
poplar-wheat
walnut - triticale
walnut-wheat
walnut-wheat
walnut-ricinus
poplar-wheat
WaNuLCAS
(ICRAF)
Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems
The model is based on above and below ground architecture of tree and crop, elementary tree and crop physiology and soil science (daily water, N, P and SOM balance for 4 soil layers and 4 horizontal zones).

The model was developed in the Stella modeling platform and can be used to assess the performance in terms of profitability as well as sustainability of various agroforestry systems.
http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/regions/southeast_asia/resources/wanulcas
HiSAFE
(INRA)
3D process based model of silvoarable AF systems
Exploration of interactions within an Silvoarable Agroforestry System
Couples a generic and validated crop model (STICS) with a generic home-made tree model
Implemented under a java platform available on any exploitation system (Capsis)

4 interaction modules (light, water, nitrogen, microclimate) link the tree and the crop modules

Day time step; year to decade runs
Includes management options :
Strategic options : tree plantation design including tree row azimuth,
initial tree-crop distance, initial crop rotation
Tactical options (triggered at the year time-step) : thinning, branch
pruning, root pruning, cropped area size
http://capsis.cirad.fr/capsis/help_en/hisafe
Yield-SAFE
(WUR-EU)
Agroforestry Development Centre, Canada
NAC - National Agroforestry Center
AFTA - Association for Temperate Agroforestry
Eucalyptus AF system
year 1
year 2
year 3
year 4
year 5
Source: Souza et al, Economic feasibility of an Eucalyptus Agroforestry system. Intech. (http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/36130.pdf)
ICRAF
(www.worldagroforestrycentre.org)
NRCAF
Nat Research Center for AF
http://www.nrcaf.res.in/
Harafarms
Australian AF Foundation
http://agroforestry.org.au/

Farm Forestry Association NZ
EURAF - European Agroforestry Federation
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x1z1g7a_agroforestry-stakes-and-perspective_tech
17' or 60' video
What is agroforestry
Brief typology
Benefits
Where is Agroforesty
History of temperate AF
Recent developments of AF in Europe
Video

Modelling
Behind an existing Model
Agroforestry models
Focus on YieldSAFE
YieldSAFE use
Forthcommings on YieldSAFE
Dynamics
C fixation
wind
soil water erosion
C root turnover
C storage
Litterfall
CNPK, Ca, Mg
N fixation
NPK uptake
NPK uptake
Light interception
Evaporation
Evaporation
Translocation
NPK, Ca, Mg, Na
Adapted from Young, 1989;
NPK Ca Mg uptake from deeper layers
Auxiliaries
SHADED PERENNIAL CROPS
FOREST FARMING
TROPICAL HOME GARDENS
MULTI-STRATA AGROFORESTRY
AGROSILVOPASTURES
WIND BREAKS
RIPARIAN BUFFERS
ALLEY CROPPING
Beer et al, 1997, Agroforestry Systems 38 (1-3):139-164.
Nutrient leaching
Leaching from crop rootzone
Splash erosion
https://www.flickr.com/photos/scotnelson/8284185925/
Example: Coffee and Tea
Source: http://chetanahc.blogspot.pt/2012/06/importance-of-shade-trees-within-tea.html
Chetana et al 2012, Journal of Tropical Ecology 28 (02):187-197.
species richness increases by three times and abundance of seeds by 3-30 times compared to plantations without Grevillea robusta
source: http://carbonfarmingcourse.com/blog/climate-stabilization-with-permanent-agriculture-part-i
Source: http://carbonfarmingcourse.com/blog/climate-stabilization-with-permanent-agriculture-part-i
Pecan walnut + pasture, US
Source: http://extension.missouri.edu/p/AF1010
Intentional manipulation of forested land to produce specific products (food, medicinal plants, other)

Compared to other AFS, that introduce trees into agricultural systems, forest farming introduces agricultural or cropping techniques into existing forested systems
Maize, sorghum and millet grown under African Faidherbia albida trees can be twice as productive, or even more.
Photo source: learningenglish.voanews.com.
Source: Yamba, B. and M. Sambo.
2012. “La Régénération Naturelle Assistée et la sécurité alimentaire des ménages de 5 terroirs villageois des départements de Kantché et Mirriah (région de Zinder).” Rapport pour le Fonds International pour le Développement Agricole
Improved soil structure and biology
Source: http://www.northsouth.ethz.ch/programmes/agricultural_research/current_livestock/stamp-gruen-lehmann
SOURCE: http://www.worldagroforestry.org/Units/Library/Books/Book%2082/imperata%20grassland/html/4.8_mutlistory.htm?n=27
Apples + Sheep, UK. Source: Jim McAdam
Montado. Holm oak + Cattle + pigs, PT
Montado. Holm oak + turkeys, PT
recent history, second half of last century, deep land use change
Eichhorn, M. et al, 2006. Silvoarable agriculture in Europe - past, present and future. Agroforestry Systems 67:29-50.
Jones N, et al, 2011, Historical review of land use changes in Portugal (before and after EU integration in 1986) and their implications for land degradation and conservation, with a focus on Centro and Alentejo regions. Applied Geography 31 (3):1036-1048. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.01.024

Arisdorf,1941 (CH)
Arisdorf,1999 (CH)
Agriculture intensification
Mecanization
Consolidation Programs
Globalization and consequent loss of revenue from tree products under extensive systems
Get into Europe
The SAFE Project
(Silvoarable Agroforestry for Europe)
2001-2005

http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/safe/
PhD thesis
Modelling tree root system with voxel automata approach
Sensitivity Analysis for silvo-arable production systems
Calcul du bilan radiatif dans les systèmes agroforetiers par l'utilisation de modèles architecturaux
Integrated assessment of Silvoarable Agroforestry at the landscape scale
Investigating the economics of silvoarable systems in Europe.
Literature study and a farmers' survey on the prospective of Agroforestry for the Netherlands.
Light and water use in polar silvoarable systems.
Brought farmer perceptions:
Brought
an european vision about agroforestry

Demonstrated that the CAP destroyed most of the rural trees in Europe
What farmers think (FR)
What tecnicians think farmers think (FR)
Established
a researchers and farmers' network at
european level and monitored an experimental network
Developed models allowing
a better comprehension between resources
competition of the tree/crop conponents,
demonstrating that the agroforestry systems produce
more biomass than isolated monocropping systems
Validation - Walnut, Cherry, Hom oak, Stone pine
Crop Yields
Light transmission
Model Family Yield-SAFE:
Longo term predictions
Hi-SAFE Model
(MicroScale, Design Setting, 3D)
LER concept (Land Equivalent Ratio)
Graves AR. et al 2007. Development and application of bio-economic modelling to compare silvoarable, arable and forestry systems in three European countries. Ecological Engineering, 29, 434-49.
Maior produção de biomassa por ha
Demonstrated
that these systems can be
economic viable as agriculture or forestry and more resilient
Graves AR. et al 2007. Development and application of bio-economic modelling to compare silvoarable, arable and forestry systems in three European countries. Ecological Engineering, 29, 434-49.
Demonstrated that
CAP impaired farmers who
planted trees and was involved in the
creation, for the first time, of european legislation to support the implementation of new groforestry
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:277:0001:0040:EN:PDF
At European scale,
demonstrated that exist about
90Mi ha available to establish these
systems, from which 65 Mi ha could provide
additional ecosystem services
Reisner Y. et al 2007. Target regions for silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Ecological Engineering, 29, 401-18.
Dozens of scientific publications...
(AGroFORestry that Will Advance Rural Development )
2014-2017
www.agforward.eu
https://www.flickr.com/agforward
Envie as suas fotos de inovações em agrofloresta para:
joaopalma@isa.ulisboa.pt
1 foto > 1000 palavras. Partilha de experiências/inovações
Montado. Holm oak + turkeys, PT
Source: forestandrange.org
source: friendsofthemexicancloudforest.org
Regulates microclimate
Source: http://forestry.ky.gov
Source: flickr/agforward
Source: flickr/agforward
Source: flickr/agforward
Source: flickr/agforward
EU - Eichhorn, M. et al, 2006. Silvoarable agriculture in Europe - past, present and future. Agroforestry Systems 67:29-50.
PT - Jones N, et al, 2011, Historical review of land use changes in Portugal (before and after EU integration in 1986) and their implications for land degradation and conservation, with a focus on Centro and Alentejo regions. Applied Geography 31 (3):1036-1048. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.01.024

Walnut Agroforestr, ITALY
Dehesas with arable crops, SPAIN
Apple under Streuobst, GERMANY
?
Agroflorestas em solos agrícolas menos produtivos
http://www.kob-bavendorf.de
http://coolsierras.com/2012/09/19/camin-mozarabe-day-four-villaharta-to-monterrubio/
Wheat area and Yield in Portugal
Fruit Tree systems
Sicily: Almond trees with cereals/fodder,18000 ha
Crete: Fig + cereals, 10500 ha
North-east France: Pre-vergers (grazed/intercropped 5-15 years)
Netherlands: Boguards (Fruit trees with pasture)
Spain: Pomeradas (Apple and cropland)
Central Europe: Streuobst (Apple under silvopasture and silvoarable)
Olives (pre-roman systems) - non intensive
Greece: 650000 ha
Italy: 20000ha
Spain and Greece: 46600 of olives + grape vines
Shelterwood and grazed woodlands (3000 ha in UK)
Pollards
Pannage
Dehesas and Montados (~ 3 miliion ha)
Shelterbelts - Bocage
Hedgerows
Timber tree systems
France: 6000 ha
Netherlands: 3000 ha
Source: Smith J (2010) The History of Temperate Agroforestry. Organic Research Centre, Newbury, Berkshire, UK
2014, about 40 reports
WWW.
.EU
AGFORWARD Project
EURAF
www.agroforestry.eu
The European Agroforestry Federation (EURAF) aims at promoting the use of trees on farms as well as any kind of silvopastoralism throughout the different environmental regions of Europe.
EURAF has about 250 members from 18 different European countries.
Discuss strategy at european level, promoting agroforestry "in Brussels", taking positions and advise on European Policy through supporting documents
Tries to work with national authorities to clarify characteristics of agroforestry
Created in 2011, at the time the new CAP was being prepared, with the aim to continue to promote the support of agroforestry in European legislation
www.agroforestry.eu
European Federation of Agroforestry
Financial execution per country
weak implementation... (still)
What happened with he support?
< 0% -> non transposed legislation
Financial execution of Axis 2
Next: Horizon 2020
Continues the support in II Pilar
(Rural Developement Plan) under the regulation 1305/2013, article 23
Support information on article 23
http://www.agroforestry.eu/sites/default/files/pub/docs/08_measure_fiche_art_23_agroforesty_final.pdf
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:347:0487:0548:en:PDF
Yield Estimator for Long-term
Design of Silvoarable Agro-Forestry for Europe
Palma et al (2014) Carbon sequestration of modern Quercus suber L. silvoarable agroforestry systems in Portugal: a YieldSAFE-based estimation. Agroforestry Systems 88 (5):791-801
Graves et al (2010) Implementation and calibration of the parameter-sparse Yield-SAFE model to predict production and land equivalent ratio in mixed tree and crop systems under two contrasting production situations in Europe. Ecological Modelling 221 (13-14):1744-1756.
Graves et al (2007) Development and application of bio-economic modelling to compare silvoarable, arable and forestry systems in three European countries. Ecological Engineering 29:434-449
Palma et al (2007) Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 119 (3-4):320-334

Palma et al (2007) Methodological approach for the assessment of environmental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale. Ecological Engineering 29:450-462
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