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Human Evolution

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by

Maria Woyden

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of Human Evolution

Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
Homo Sapiens
Human Evolution
Physical
Tall in relation to earlier species
Well developed and large brain
Upright Structure on two limb
Characteristics
The same internal functions occur
Body structure and bones are the same
Similar facial structures
Homo Erectus stood on two legs
Still uses tools make from stone
Relation to Group
First well developed spoken language
Weaker skull
Well developed and large brain
Uses tools made out of much more than stone
Legs developed to stand straight up without using too much effort

Uniqueness
Homo Erectus
Characteristics
Physical
Proportional in head and body
Thick skulls
Behavioral
Manipulated tools and fire
Hunted for food
Habitat
Distributed throughout countries
Lived in the open
Relation to Group
Structurally similar to homo sapiens, but shorter
Femoral necks similar to Homo Heidelbergensis: broad and flaring out under birth canal to indicate larger brain
Skull features much like homo sapiens
Uniqueness
Massive browridges and face
Heavy jawbone
Approximately 900cc brain
First to introduce the use of tools and control fire
First to migrate to Africa
Homo Neanderthalensis
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
Characteristics
Physical
Brow ridges arch above eye sockets
Thick bones
Behavior
Used stone tools
Utilized animal hides
Habitat
Lived in caves
Used fire for warmth
Uniqueness
Generally lived in cold climates
Thicker than most species, especially at rib cage, legs and head
Large brain, but smaller in proportion to body
Relation to Group
Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens both have 46 chromosomes
Buried dead
Used tools and hunted for food
Similar bone structure
Bipedalism
Chromosomal Analysis
Embyological
Anatomical
Bipedalism throughout species
Hip bones:
early hominids had short ilia and
short, broad sacrum.
changed to curved in ilia and
gluteal muscles to steady walking
Legs:
Early hominids go straight down
humans curve inward from hips
Feet:
Human footprints distinct because heel and toes are prominent (arch)
earlier species has mobile midfoot
Heidelbergensis and neanderthals had wider birth canal to account for the larger brain/head
Fossil Record
Natural Selection
Descent with Modification
Skulls
:
Hominid skulls contain same basic features, but change in shape and size over time to fit brain. The brain remains around the same size and structure, but evolves into a more complex, advanced organ to support modern life.
Legs
:
Hips contain same bones, but vary in shape and size in order to support upper body. As hominids become more upright, legs must adjust to perform steady movement and standing.
Works Cited
Picture 1: http://whenintime.com/EventDetails.aspx?e=73014375-c631-473d-981a-b2dff3bf08d4&t=/tl/r19kaste/humanities_6_review_timeline_/
Picture 2: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tract_housing
Picture 3: http://www.mhrt.qld.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/welcome_languages.png
Picture 4: http://www.skullsunlimited.com/userfiles/image/category3_family_227_large.jpg
Picture 5: http://pages.vassar.edu/realarchaeology/files/2013/11/sheep-pile-head-on.jpg
Picture 6: http://whenintime.com/EventDetails.aspx?e=73014375-c631-473d-981a-b2dff3bf08d4&t=/tl/r19kaste/humanities_6_review_timeline_/
Picture 7:http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/2001_human_ka/homoert.jpg
Picture 8: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Daka_Homo_erectus.jpg
Picture 9: http://wildjuggling.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/homo_erectus_adult_female_-_head_model_-_smithsonian_museum_of_natural_history_-_2012-05-17.jpg
Picture 10: http://c3e308.medialib.glogster.com/media/04/04ff6a8b834489ac5ba4fdb45366fb969ac209f0e846e19fc2ad594725a2344d/homo-neanderthalensis-jpg.jpg


Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primates
Hominidae
Homo
Sapien
Picture 2
Behavioral
Hunt large range animals
First well developed spoken language
Widespread, diverse culture

Habitat
Dependent on water and natural resources
Mass production of shelter
Adjust well to climate
Picture 3
Picture 4
Picture 5
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primates
Hominidae
Homo
Sapien
Picture 6
Picture 8
Picture 1
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primates
Hominidae
Homo
Sapien
Picture 9
Picture 7
Picture 10
Picture 11

Picture 11: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ogpPWv2qOT4/Ti_86qhs3dI/AAAAAAAAA6o/nLr71kftoBU/s400/Cavemen.png
Picture 12: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_OegChr5Zg_s/TCqhdXd-k_I/AAAAAAAACZs/dnXRo8VYbG4/s1600/Hunter+with+tiger+hide+multi.jpg
Picture 13: http://www.pinterest.com/pin/228557749810401215/
Picture 14: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils
Picture 15: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils
Picture 16: http://www.tooloop.com/skeleton-real-pictures-human-anatomy/
Picture 17: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils
Picture 18: http://www.freethoughtpedia.com/images/Whale_embryo_small-2.gif
Picture 19: http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Carnegie_stage_14
Picture 20: http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/images/contentpages/karyotype.jpg
Picture 21: http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/7.10534.1368541160!/image/neanderthal-comparison.jpg_gen/derivatives/fullsize/neanderthal-comparison.jpg
Picture 12
No evidence to prove relations within species because there is minimal research on embryos before humans
Whales Compared to Humans
Embryos have legs - some are born with them
rare cases have a femur, tibia, fibulae and toes
Have a pelvis with no real function
Have teeth that degenerate after birth
Fluke does not develop until later in development
Some whales have hair
Early human embryos show evidence of a tail
Minor evolutionary differences show relationship over time
Skulls
Homo Habilis -Homo Erectus - Homo Neanderthal - Homo Sapien
Picture 13
Picture 14
Picture 15
Picture 16
Picture 17
Body
Picture 18
Picture 19
Humans and Neanderthals
23 pairs of chromosomes
2 ancestral chromosomes fused to create "chromosome 2"
late evolutionary similarities
All Other Hominids
24 pairs of chromosomes
Earlier evolutionary relationships
Picture 21
Picture 22: http://sciencemadefun.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/neanderthal-human.png
Picture 23 and 24: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/shanidar-1
Picture 25: http://efossils.org/sites/efossils.org/files/walkingAfarensis_0.jpg
Picture 26: http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/biobookhumgen.html
Picture 27: http://efossils.org/book/introduction-bipedalsim
Picture 28: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/zhoukoudian
Picture 29: http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/rftmusic/category3_family_227_large.jpeg
Picture 30: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree#
Picture 22
Bipedalism:
Upright species saw predators/prey sooner
Availability of hands for carrying things and using tools/weapons
Less exposure to the sun
Run away was predators faster

Species that were not upright died faster, leaving the taller ones to reproduce, showing natural selection within hominids.
Pitcure 23
Picture 24
Picture 26
Picture 27
Homo Erectus Skull
Modern Human Skull
Picture 29
Picture 28
Evolution of
Humans
Picture 30
Full transcript