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Transcript of Psychological Approach
1. Identify the character(s) of analysis.
2. Observe the character(s) actions and thoughts
3. Compare the character to a psychological idea
4. Give a reason using evidence from the text of why they act how they do.
5. Give reasons that occurred during the authors life as to why the character acts how they do.
6. Present your evidence and belief as to their reasons for their actions. Steppenwolf
...The resulting feeling of isolation and inability to make lasting contact with the outside world led to increasing despair and thoughts of suicide.
With Harry Haller being the steppenwolf, he tries to control both of his "halves". This causes his superego to become torn into two by both of his halves.
...Steppenwolf is still seen by some as an example of the process of psychoanalysis itself. Freudian Psychology Sigmund Freud is the founding father of psychoanalysis
He focused heavily on the unconscious aspect of personality.
Believed that what we experienced in our childhood contributed to who we are as adults.
Also believed in the theory known as the id, ego, and super ego, which forms and develops a person's personality.
Contributed to how we view people psychologically and what cause people to do certain things. Table Of Contents Chapters Part 1 The Art of Psychology
Chapter 1 Definition
Chapter 2 Important Contributors
Part 2 Psychological Inventory
Chapter 1 Procedural List
Chapter 2 Critiqued Examples
Part 3 Essay with Annotations [Frankenstein] is a strikingly accurate portrait of a pathological narcissist as expressed by the novel’s protagonist, the science student Victor Frankenstein. ... In other words, Shelley must have had real life experience with narcissism which she subsequently used as template for Victor Frankenstein. The problem with the Mad Scientist is that he not only is a megalomaniac trying ‘to play God’, his greater sin is his sick or corrupt character. This leads to the second important stereotype pervading the mythological ‘science of anthropoeia’: The Mad Scientist unconsciously knows that his motivation for creating an artificial being is a vane desire to create a grandiose version of himself. FRANKENSTEIN Peter Pan
...of a boy who would never grow up was based on J. M. Barrie's older brother who died in an ice-skating accident the day before he turned 14, and thus always stayed a young boy in his mother's mind.
Peter Pan syndrome is a deep-seated belief that one will never, and must never, grow up Works Cited The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn -Both Huck and Jim exhibit rebellious tendencies, which also contributes to their relationship. Huck's freedom is psychologically based rather than geographical. This freedom is a need to elude those stern guardians of authority and also the influence society has on people. Huck's conscious forces the effect of alienation caused by not only depression but also problems with his self-esteem. These manifestations were repercussions not only of his relationship with his father, but his authoritative figures, and society in and of itself.
-He represses contempt that he holds for his father's negative attitude, which contributed greatly to Huck's low self-esteem. The Oedipal Complex created by Freud comes into play at this point in time. Huck was without a maternal figures other than the strict guidance of Miss Watson and the Widow Douglas who were not modeled as mothers, but teachers.
-The Oedipal Complex is responsible for the development of the superego, which is comprised, of morality, conscience, law and authority. Huck throughout this novel tends to follow his superego. The superego influences gender roles, relationships, and the transition from family to society. For instance, the superego reflects moral judgements and the sacrifice for good even if not logical. Huck's escape to the river is not a logical option. Although he has a rough relationship with his father, Miss Watson and the Widow Douglas are trying to manipulate Huck into becoming an educated individual that conforms to society. Instead of giving in to the pressures to conform to society he runs in the opposite direction, which signifies a sacrifice for good rather than a logical discussion. Psychoanalytic criticism centers on repressed emotions and what the superego decides not to do that are pushed into the unconscious. Jungian Psychological approach is the perspective that involves in a character's behavior, mind, and action to analyze the character.
The origin of psychology was initially a branch of philosophy, and the start of it began in Germany in late 1800s studying the behavior of rats. The 5 main psychological approaches include:
Behaviorist- controlled by the environment of the subject and they are the result of what is learned by the environment.
Psychodynamic- belief by Freud where our childhood can impact the behavior of the our adult mind.
Humanism- studies through not only the eye of the observer but also the person behaving.
Cognitive- the explanation of memory and sensory perception of the brain.
Biological- where our behavior is determined by our genes. The Art of Psychology Part 1 Part 2 Psychological Inventory Chapter 1 Definition Chapter 2 Important Contributors Chapter 1 Procedural List Chapter 2 Critiqued Examples Carl Jung is the founder of analytical psychology
He focuses on establishing and fostering the relationship between conscious and unconscious processes.
Believed in individuation which is the process of developing wholeness by integrating all the various parts of the psyche.
Jung found that individuals can be characterized as either primarily inward-oriented or primarily outward-oriented.
This became known as introversion and extraversion William James Known as the father of American psychology
He believed that personality arises from the continual interplay of instincts, habits, and personal choices.
He pursued most vigorously the task of understanding and explaining the basic units of thought.
For James, personality arises from the continual interplay of instincts, habits, and personal choices. Id, Ego and the Superego Id: - Consists of all the inherited components of personality, including the sex instinct.
- The impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts.
- The personality of the newborn child is all id and only later does it develop ego and super-ego.
- The id demands immediate satisfaction and when this happens we experience pleasure, when it is denied we experience ‘unpleasure’ or pain.
- The id is not affected by reality, logic or the everyday world.
On the contrary, it operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920g) which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences. Ego: - Initially the ego is “that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world” (Freud 1923).
- Ego is developed to meditate between the unrealistic id and the external real world.
- The Ego works by reason unlike the id.
- The ego operates according to the reality principle, working our realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction.
- The ego is concerned with devising a realistic strategy to obtain pleasure. Freud made the analogy of the id being the horse while the ego is the rider. Superego -The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others. It develops around the age of 4 – 5 during the phallic stage of psycho sexual development.
- The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression.
- The superego consists of two systems: The conscience and the ideal self.
- The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. The ideal self (or ego-ideal) is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people, and how to behavior as a member of society. Chapter 3 Essay with Annotations