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The X-Ray Machine
Transcript of The X-Ray Machine
The serendipitous discovery of X-Rays and the creation of the X-Ray machine revolutionized the medical field and drastically improved doctor's abilities to care for patients.
The technological advancements of the X-Ray machine brought opportunities that no other medical invention accomplished.
Individuals & Driving Forces
The Perfect Conditions
Both Wilhelm and Coolidge lived in Germany, and both even in the same city at one point.
Germany's economy was booming. There was political peace.
There were lots of scientific discoveries popping up, such as the electron!
A presentation created by:
Breaking a bone and having the doctors feel & guess the location and angle of the break.
Getting screws, pins, or even bone replacements put into your body without images
Receiving an exploratory surgery
Getting braces or wisdom teeth removed without dental images
Airport security not being able to x-ray suit cases and therefore being more invasive by manually searching
William David Coolidge
Born October 23, 1873, Hudson, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died February 3, 1975, Schenectady, New York
Boston, MA: born, attended Boston Tech (Now called MIT), , research assistant (1873-1905), (1909-1939)
Hudson, NY: high school (1888-1992)
Liepzig, Germany:Continued his doctorate, talked with Roentgen (1889-1901) (1920-1922)
Schenectady, NY: worked on the X-Ray tube (1940-1975)
Father: Albert Edward Coolidge
Mother: Martha Alice Shattuck Coolidge
1st Wifre: Ethel Westcott Woodard
Children: Lawrence, Elizabeth
2nd Wife: Dorothy Elizabeth MacHaffie
Fellow researchers in the X-Ray tube: Dr. F. H. Williams, Wiilhelm Roentgen
Significant Friend: Professor Willis R. Whitney, Professor Gustav
William David Coolidge, a physicist and inventor, picked up Rontgen's research after years and years of studying, and contributed majorly to the X-Ray science. It began when he replaced carbon filaments in lightbulbs with ductile tungsten filaments. This lead to his studies of the X-Rays and gave him connections to meet with the discoverer of the X-Rays himself, Wilhelm Rontgen.
Coolidge helped transform dangerous radiation into a revolutionary tool for the medical field. He did this by developing the Coolidge tube. It's a cathode filament that emits electrons. The electrons strike the anode, change directions, and emit x-rays. This was a continuous flow of energy, unlike the cold cathode that was previous invented. This Coolidge tube was very stable and controllable. He was able to harvest the X-Rays in a generally safe manor. He then developed a powerful and portable X-Ray which allowed doctors to treat injured soldiers from the first World War in hospitals near the front. This revolutionized the ability for hospitals around the world to have portable X-Rays in their facilities.
William Coolidge was always interested in engineering, chemistry, and physics. His first true friend in his field of work was his professor, Willis R. Whitney. They had a long and happy friendship at Boston Tech. He got to see laboratories that inspired him. Whitney encouraged him to apply applied for a grant and soon he was off to Leipzig, Germany for his graduate work. He met another friend, Professor Gustav Weidemann who advised him at his new school. One day, Wilhelm Roentgen (the discoverer of the X-Rays) visted the school in Germany. Coolidge was able to talk to him. This was the beginning of creating a practical use of the Roentgen's X-Rays. He started off with working with the filaments in lightbulbs and eventually continued onto the Coolidge tube.
I believe Coolidge's driving forces was his determination and his fortunate relationships along his journey.
Coolidge's Driving Forces
Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
Born March 27, 1845, Rhenish Prussia (Germany)
Died February February 10, 1923 Munich due to carcinoma of the intestine
Apeldoorn in the Netherlands: 1848 went to Institute of Mrtinus Herman van Doorn
Utecht: 1862 technical school, expelled
University of Utrecht: 1865 studied physics
Polytechnic at Zurich: 1865 studied mechanical engineer
Wurzburg: 1869 became assistant to his Professor Kundt
University of Giessen: 1879 Chair of Physics
Father: Friedrich Conrad Rontgen
Mother: Charlotta Contanza Frowein
Wife: Anna Bertha Ludwig
Children: adopted Josephine Bertha Ludwig
Fellow researchers in the X-Ray tube: Thomas Edison, Dr. F. H. Williams, William Coolidge
Significant Relationships: Professor Clausius and Professor Kundt at Polytechnic at Zurich
Rontgen is the discoverer of X-Rays. He discovered this phenomena in 1895 by accident by sending an electric current through a gas of extremely low pressure. The first still X-Ray image was of his wife's hand, where her bones and wedding ring were visible.
Upon this discovery, several cities and streets in Germany were named after him. Prizes, medals, and global recognition flooded him almost immediately. He had accomplished something spectacular that would change the medical field forever.
Rontgen was slightly different from the rest. He was expelled from one of his schools, and was rejected from others because he did not meet the requirements.
Rontgen loved nature. In the later stages of his life, he was often skiing or on exhibitions. He also liked to work alone in his lab, and he loved to experiment.
Rontgen had good intentions for his invention, however he did work any further with it. This is why I believe William Coolidge is a high contributing individual. Coolidge, among other physicists, picked up Rontgen's work and put it into practical use.
So, what even is radiation?
Imagine the following scenarios...
First, there are 2 types of radiation.
Nonionizing: radio, microwaves (excites electrons)
Ionizing: (damage DNA)
-Gamma Rays & X-Rays
Second, everyone is exposed to ionized radiation (in very small amounts)
Radon: ground (elements decay into gas)
Cosmic: some makes it through Earth's atmosphere
Construction Zones: industrial radiography equipment to examine cracks
And for some, X-Ray machines
The Place and Time of Intention
Along the River Main in Germany
Has 2nd Oldest Bridge in Germany
Dates back to medieval times
Owned by the Merovingian dynasty in 650
Holds the Wurzburg Cathedral (788) and University of Wurzburg (1402)
Wurzburg witch trials (1626-1631)
Population at time of invention: unknown
Current Population: 133,808
Most recent war: World War II - Bombing of Wurzburg
Wilhelm Rontgen attended the University and William Coolidge visited it
Fun Wurzburg Facts
The perfect mix of economy & politics.
In the late 1800's / early 1900's, Wurzburg was under the districts of Wurzburg and Ochsenfurt. The Industrial Revolution had jump started the German economy. Cities grew rapidly and the Socialist Movement sprung up. Less than 20 years before the discovery of the X-Rays, the German Empire formed under the leadership of Otto Von Bismark and was successful. Many men (and some women like Marie Curie) pursued physics at different Universities around Germany. Pivotal discoveries began popping up all over Europe and America - such as the discovery of electrons and alpha rays. News traveled through Europe and to America via the telegraph.
The timing was right; with a good economy and no wars sparked yet, physicists like Wilhelm Rontgen were able to spend hours in their lab. Arts and music flourished. Germany excelled in the Summer Olypics. Women wore corsets, late Victorian style dresses, and loud hats. Men wore suits, tall collars, and top hats. There were essentially two cultures, although they generally lacked tension due to the thriving economy. One "culture" was a conservative and business-driven group and the other was the working middle class. With all of the economical success, Germany's railroad networks were growing. Germany was becoming Europe's strongest industrial power.
Culture, Technology, & Boom of Scientific Discoveries
During the late 1800s, chemists and physicists made many revolutionary scientific discoveries. The economy was flourishing and education (for the most part men) was highly valued. World War 1 hadn't began yet. A string of revolutionary scientific discoveries began popping up. English physicist Sir William Crooks had invented the first cathode ray tube with a high vacuum was invented, which is the device used to discover X-Rays. French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered alpha and beta particles, and American physicist Robert Millikan discovered the electron's charge. It wasn't necessarily the location of Wilhelm Rontgen in Wurzburg, Germany that caused him to stumble across the X-Rays.
These discoveries were being made all over Europe and in America, and news about them was spread via the telegraph. However, it did help that Germany had a strong economy and good leadership. Rongten was working with a cathode ray tube, like my physicists at the time, and discovered the X-Rays accidentally. His discovery, along with shocking the public, greatly assisted the medical field. Surgeons no longer had to do exploratory surgeries. This also began preventative care. People could be examined before an emergency was occurring. X-Ray imaging also allowed women to see how corsets were permanently distorting their rib cage and intestines.
First Uses of X-Ray Imaging
The X-Ray machine was seen as a new scientific wonder. It was shown in exhibits. People thought it would allow strangers to walk through walls and doors. Circus people viewed their skeletons and jewelry.
1900 Clarence Dally was the first man to die from X-Ray radiation. He experimented frequently with it, using his own hands.
"Don't talk to me about X-Rays, I am afraid of them."
-Thomas Edison (after losing his dear friend Dally).
The negative side effects appeared in those who repeatedly put their hand in exposure every day. This was not occuring in regular patients. Sunburns would form, and in some cases cancer of the hands could be present. Skin and nails could start to fall off.
For patients, its a success!
6 months after the discovery, X-Rays were used by surgeons
Using a photographic plate & X-Ray tube
1912 William Coolidge's tube: high power, less duration
Patients did not develop cancer
X-Ray and women
Some believed they didn't want another man to see their body
First time seeing the effects of corsets (as mentioned previously).
Gave women job opportunities in the hospital without going to medical school
1918 George Eastman introduces film
Replaces the "radiation plate", provides more clear, still images that are light weight
1920 Society of Radiographers was formed
Radiologists were seen as real doctors. They were well trained and set standards for the intensity for X-Ray machines in hospitals.
1950's Image Intensifier
Provided clearer imaging abilities
1970's Ultrasound, Digital Imaging
X-Rays were used on other things besides bones - babies! Also, the ability to create, save, and store digital images helped hospitals keep things on file and reduce waste
1972 CAT (Computed Axial Tomography)scan
This provided 3D images and cross sections of bones.
Today's Medical X-Rays
Small amounts of radiation
1 year someone will absorb about 3 millisieverts of radiation
Radiation during X-Ray would be amount someone would receive in 10 days
Lead vest to shield and block excess radiation
Radiation Rooms in hospitals
I took this photo at St. Lukes in Meridian
Effects of the X-Ray Machine on Today
What was America like in comparison?
During the time that the X-Ray was invented, America was known as the “Melting Pot”. It was a mixture of many different cultures, and although slavery was abolished, the cookie cutter white Protestant male was a dominating culture. Religion was a big deal during this time frame, especially in Europe where certain religions were being persecuted (thus immigration into America). Europe was mainly Roman Catholics. Education was highly valued. Physics was competitive and exciting as uranium rays and electrons were being discovered. Some members of the church felt like physics was trying to prove their church wrong, such as when Copernicus proposed that the sun was the center of the universe. X-Rays rose some curiosity and rumors spread, but it wasn't enough to cause a massive problem. Women also took apart in the new physics discoveries.
What about religion?
The Consent to Treatment Form is a standard that was created in the early years of medical practices in civilized areas of the world. It means that prior to receiving an X-Ray, the patient must sign a consent to treatment form. It’s role is to protect patients from receiving unwanted activities performed on their body. It legally proves that no unwanted medical attention was forced upon the patient.
CPS is the standard that measures the intensity of the X-Rays. It is (1-10 wt%) which displaces small peaks in the x-ray energy spectrum, and therefore suitable for patients. This standard controls radiation and keeps it from poisoning or burning the patient.
Lead to other opportunities
The harmful effects of radiation has always been a great concern for people. Some say that X-Rays give off greater amounts of radiation than doctor’s claim, or that one X-Ray can cause issues later. A major controversy was that people were even very skeptical for using X-Rays when taking dental images, because they feared that it would affect their Thyroid gland and cause cancer. The most popular and frequent forms of x-raying is from dental or orthopedic imaging. This also includes children and pregnant women.
Specifically for causes of Thyroid cancer due to medical imaging, controversy broke out in the United States and was pushing for legal actions in especially in New York.
In 2004, the ADA-FDA made guidelines for the beam strength and distances of the x-ray when taking an image of the teeth. They also stated, “Because every precaution should be taken to minimize radiation exposure, protective thyroid collars and aprons should be used whenever possible”. In 2012, the guidelines for the guidelines were modified and stronger enforced due to the study published in September 2012 in an issue of Cancer magazine. This has hushed a lot of the controversy, but it didn’t end the fear of radiation by many people in the United States. X-Rays are possible by radiation, and radiation will always be harmful. Therefore, the controversy will probably never die.
The X-Ray machine has never played a profound roll in politics, from past to present. Of course regarding the safety of the patients and the effects on the environment fall under the wing of politics.
Building an X-Ray machine like the ones used in hospitals requires the creation of aluminum, plastic (for support and structure), wiring, lead (for radiation blockage) and glass (for the cathode tube). The two most environmentally and energy consuming materials to create for an X-Ray machine are aluminum and plastic. Through the smelting aluminum, “red mud” is made. It is a wasteful product and is dumped into “ponds” where the idea is that it will evaporate. Plastic has molded itself into many areas of society and creates a lot of waste that accumulates in the environment (land fills, in the ocean). These sources of energy for production are not sustainable; if we keep using the same method then there will be an overwhelming amount of waste and natural gasses with become more difficult to obtain.
Producing Plastic: The production of plastic equated approximately 1.7% of total U.S. natural gas consumption in one year. This production also equaled to 1.7% of the total U.S. electricity consumption.
Power Supply for a 300MA X-Ray Machine: 440V +10% V AC, 50 Hz
X-Rays and Hospitals: There are 5,723 registered hospitals in the United States. 100% of registered hospitals have at least one X-Ray machine.
The most energy used by X-Ray machines is when they are produced. The voltage to power an X-Ray is not overwhelming. However, the production of aluminum and plastic take its toll on the earth. The amount of natural gases used and electricity consumed is alarming, as shown in the statics above. However, the production of X-Ray machines do not take an overwhelming amount of aluminum or plastic because they are not extremely large machines. Throughout my research of the X-Ray, I have been focusing on X-Rays used in hospitals. Although I couldn’t find the exact number of X-Ray machines in hospitals, I found out that there are 5,723 registered hospitals in the US and they all have at least one X-Ray. This lets me conclude that there is a lot of X-Rays in our country alone.
However, X-Ray machines (not the film) are not disposed of frequently. They don’t create the kind of waste that plastic does in other things, such as from water bottles which get thrown away frequently. Yet of course, the production of X-Ray machines do contribute to the pollution and energy consumption due to aluminum and plastic. It is not a sustainable source of energy; natural gas is limited and we can not keep using such large amounts of electricity and producing such large amounts of waste.
Life Easier in our Culture
X-Rays revolutionized the medical field by stopping exploratory surgeries. They are now noninvasive and less painful because the doctors can locate the precise location of the injury.
X-Rays began preventative care and diagnostics. Now if people are experiencing pain or symptoms, they can go into the hospital and get X-Rayed.
Although I focused my project on mainly medical X-Rays found in hospitals and clinics, X-Rays are also used for many other things. Some examples include
Construction Workers: identify pipes and cracks under ground without ripping up surface
So to wrap things up...
*Note: whenever " " is present in the presentation, it means my thesis was challenged.
"The serendipitous discovery of X-Rays and the creation of the X-Ray machine revolutionized the medical field and drastically improved doctor's abilities to care for patients.
The technological advancements of the X-Ray machine brought opportunities that no other medical invention accomplished."
Challenges Against Thesis
Ionized radiation damages DNA
Created hand cancer and even caused death
The materials used in production are very harsh on the environment
The machine caused worry in some recent patients regarding their safety
When Rontgen stumbled across the florescent green light in his lab that could penetrate his skin, he knew he had discovered something incredible. The X-Ray machine was indeed revolutionary, for it opened up an entire new possibility. It drastically helped doctors by allowing them to see what was happening in the body, which stopped exploratory surgeries and began preventative care. Patients could now be treated with less invasive methods. And as it turns out, X-Rays can penetrate through many things which is useful in other areas besides just the medical field.
Yes, it is true that radiation is harmful for the human body. But so are broken bones and injuries. Today, through the long road of perfecting the X-Ray machine, patients receive as low of a radiation dose as possible. Those who developed hand cancer by the X-Rays were physicists over a hundred years ago who didn't know that daily exposure would cause harm. Today, there are many safety precautions and standards put in place when dealing with them. However, it is unfortunate that they harm the environment in production and disposal.
I plan to become a radiologist, so I can see just how beneficial this miraculous machine can be.
Bismarck: A Political History.
Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2014. <http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1664263>.
Since I couldn't find a book specifically about Wurzburg, this book explained what Germany was like during the time period. This book gave me information on who was the leader or ruler of Germany when all these discoveries were being made. It explained why the economy was doing so well, and explained a little bit (as much info as I needed) about the German Empire. Germany was very successful in the time the X-Ray was invented. This left no challenges to my hypothesis, but in a way it did expand it because it talked about women in Germany during that time. Not a lot of women were physicists or going to med school. Interesting to think about.
Williams, L. Pearce.
The Nineteenth Century
. New York: Scribner, 1978
Although this book didn't focus on Wurzburg Germany specifically, it did give me a very good idea of what the late 19th century was like. I learned about social classes and fashion, and it even went briefly into the scientific discoveries of that time. I just had to careful to focus on the late 19th century, because the X-Ray was invented in 1895. ItIt was difficult to find a book about the early 20th century, but this one worked well. It didn't really bring up any challenges to my hypothesis, but gave me a better sense of the era.
The German Town of Wurzburg.
The Seattle Times Company, 2008.
This article gave me specific little details I needed to know about Wurzburg. It informed me of the town's bridge, bits of their historical background, and some about World War 2. It didn't bring up any challenges or expansions for my hypothesis, but did give me an idea on why so many discoveries were being made during that era. Wurzburg, along with the rest of Germany, was quite content at that time.
Nitske, W. Robert.
The Life of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen: Discoverer of the X Ray.
Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1971.
This gave me information about Rontgen's life and where he discovered the X-Rays (University of Wurzburg). Although this book focuses on the chemical breakdown of the cathode generator, it does supply brief information (enough for me) about the impact on the culture of this scientific break through. The previous times I was reading about Rontgen, I skipped over details about Wurzburg (where he did his study), but in this book I focused on it. It does put everything into perspective on how it was during that era, which is what I was looking for. It supports my hypothesis by describing what an incredible and history-changing discovery the X-Ray machine was.
Lavine, Matthew. "The Early Clinical X-Ray in the United States: Patient Experiences and Public Perceptions." Journal Of The History Of Medicine & Allied Sciences 67, no. 4 (October 2012): 587-625. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 28, 2014).
This provided information about the early X-Ray, which I was searching for to see what Coolidge's first portable X-Ray was like. It helped described the Coolidge tubes, and prove what a high contributing individual Coolidge was. It supports my thesis by saying how instantaneously the X-Ray was put to good use.
Suits, C. G. "William David Coolidge 1873-1975." National Academy of Sciences. Accessed September 28, 2014. http://www.nasonline.org/publications/biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/coolidge-william.pdf.
This chronologically organized and briefly summarized Coolidge's life, beginning from his high school and ending with his death. It emphasized the relationships that Coolidge had that helped me create the driving forces. This helps me gather information to support my thesis by saying how quickly Coolidge put the X-Ray into use for the medical field.
"William David Coolidge." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (December 2013): 1. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 28, 2014).
From this I learned about where Coolidge was from, his family, schools, cities, birth/death dates, and relationships. It had specific details about Coolidge's life that I needed to complete the biography.
Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H. "X-Rays Surgical Revolution." Journal Of Investigative Surgery 22, no. 5 (October 2009): 327-332. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 1, 2014).
This source supplied me with information regaurding the first X-Rays. I learned here that Coolidge created the portable and stable X-Ray that was used in the first World War. This strengthened my thesis of the X-Ray being invented to help people.
Slides 27-31, 36
"Reducing Radiation from Medical X-Rays" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 19 February 2009.
This source explained the success of the X-Ray machine in the present-day medical field, and also explained the risk of radiation. For my project, it helped with the slide about the impacts on present day. I believe the risk factors of the X-Ray machine do challenge my hypothesis because if radiation can be harmful and risky, then it wouldn't help patients. However, I greatly feel as though more patients are benefited than harmed. This article also explains how we all get exposed to radiation on a daily basis and the X-Ray machine doesn't significantly increase that amout.
"Medical X Ray Imaging." U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 4 June 2014. Accessed 13 Nov. 2014.
This source was very informative and reader friendly. It summarized the benefits and risks of X-Ray machines, which helped explained my invention in present time. In a way it challenges my thesis by bringing up the risks. However, I believe the benefits outweigh the consequences. Also, it explains how low risk the average person has very little risk when getting an X-Ray machine.
Early History of X Rays
. SLAC Stanford, 2008. Accessed November 11, 2014.
This was perhaps my favorite source. This article explained the life history of the inventor of the X-Ray, along with details about that era. The X-Ray machine was created in the late 1800's and used very successfully in the beginning of the 1900's. This source helped show the powerful effects that the X-Ray had on the medical field, which strengthens my thesis and was beneficial to PM4 by allowing me to create the change in daily life.
Borisov, S. V., and N. V. Podberezskaya. 2012. "X-ray diffraction analysis: A brief history and achievements of the first century." Journal Of Structural Chemistry 53, no. 1: 1-3. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 11, 2014).
From this Academic Journal, I learned about the early beginnings of x-rays. It focused on how there was a ripple effect once the electron was discovered. It supports my hypothesis by showing what a large effect X-Rays had, by providing treatment, diagnosis, and prevention. In my project, I really want to prove the massive impact of the X-Ray machine. This strengthens my thesis.
Slides 4-6, 29
Nitske, W. Robert.
The Life of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen: Discoverer of the X Ray.
Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1971.
This gave me information about Rontgen's life and where he discovered the X-Rays (University of Wurzburg). Although this book focuses on the chemical breakdown of the cathode generator, it does supply brief information (enough for me) about the impact on the culture of this scientific break through. For my project, I was aiming to look more at the impacts and not necessarily all the things that happen in a cathode. This supported my hypothesis because it showed how things changed so quickly after the X-Rays were discovered.
Williams, L. Pearce.
The Nineteenth Century
. New York: Scribner, 1978
This book helped me relate the invention to what was going on in the time period. I just had to careful to focus on the late 19th century, because the X-Ray was invented in 1895. It was difficult to find a book about the early 20th century, but this one worked well. It didn't really bring up any challenges to my hypothesis, but gave me a better sense of the era.
Early History of X Rays
. SLAC Stanford, 2008.
This was perhaps my favorite source. This article explained the life history of the inventor of the X-Ray, along with details about that era. It wasn't super scientifically in depth when describing the cathode ray genertor, so it was generally easy to read. It had pictures from the era that were really helpful in understanding what a shocking discovery this was during that time. This strengthened my thesis by explaining what a revolutionary change the discovery of X-Rays had created.
“Energy needed to produce aluminum” eia.gov. August 16, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2014.
This source provided me with the statistics for creating aluminum.
Aluminum is produced using natural gas and electricity, and is a large production in the United States today. This source gave me the statistics about the production of aluminum. It is a negative consequence of X-Ray machines, even if they relatively do not use a large amount.
"How Much Oil Is Used to Make Plastic?" Eia.gov. June 18, 2014. Accessed November 6, 2014
Plastic is produced using natural gas and electricity, and makes up a large percentage of petroleum gas consumption and waste. This source informed me about the dangers of the creation of plastic by providing statistics. Again, it weakens my thesis by providing how the productions of X-Rays can be harmful to mankind.
"Technical Specifications 300MA X-Ray Machine." HSCC. July 1, 2010. Accessed November 6, 2014
This source explained how much voltage an X-Ray Machine consumes. It explained that when an X-Ray machine is used, it is a high amount of power for a short amount of time. It is not as “energy consuming” as some may think, however, this use of energy is not sustainable due to the methods that energy is created. This strengthens my thesis by explaining that the continuous use of it in hospitals isn’t consuming a massive amount of energy, yet it also expands my hypothesis by saying that this is not a sustainable source.
"Facts on U.S. Hospitals." Statista. January 1, 2011. Accessed November 6, 2014
This supplied with the number of registered hospitals in the US, along with how many beds and the percentage of those beds occupied. It helped me visualize how many X-Rays there might be in the US since I couldn’t find that number. The number of X-Rays is important when thinking about the consequences of production. This source could challenge my thesis by stating that there are a lot of X Rays in the country and therefore a lot of aluminum and plastic and other materials had to have been created.
Slide 34, 45, 48
"Dental Radiographic Examinations: Recommendations for Patient Selection and Limiting Radiation Exposure." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Council on Scientific Affairs. American Dental Association, January 1, 2012. Accessed November 18, 2014.
This is a factual article written straight from the U.S. Department of Health, giving data about X-Rays. It discusses the beam strength and lead collar protections, along with modifications of guidelines of X-Rays used in dentistry. It was beneficial because it gave me facts about solutions to radiation to provide the safest environment for patients. I already was aware that people were skeptical about radiation, but this strengthened it and gave me facts. However, it challenges my thesis by saying that X-Rays are dangerous. It admits that they are. However, I can use it to also strengthen my thesis by saying how many precautions and guidelines are done to make an X-Ray an extremely low dosage of radiation.
Assmus, Alexi. (2011). Early History of X Rays. (Stanford: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University), 10-24.
This article discusses the invention of the X-Ray, along with information about its dangers. It gave me information of where the X-Ray was created and to which places the invention, and controversy, was spread to. It challenges my thesis by stating that the X-Ray can be dangerous, however it does discuss the many benefits of the machine as well.
Cohen, Elizabeth. “Are dental X-Rays Dangerous?” CNN Health, Speptember 15, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2014.
This is an article written about X-Rays used for dental imaging, especially in relationship with how frequent children go to the dentist. It talks about the benefits and downsides to X-Rays, but is slightly skewed to the downside of them. It benefited me by providing facts and opinions about current controversy of radiation. It discussed the impacts and worries about children and thyroid cancer. I also read through the comments of the article to see different people’s reactions. This challenges my hypothesis by providing the element in fear when receiving an X-Ray, which I claim to be a method for treatment.