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Chapter 6 Section 1
Transcript of Chapter 6 Section 1
The Colonies and Great Britain had reached a critical point of disagreement, and both expected the war for freedom to be extremely short.
The British seemed to have a massive advantage, with the world's strongest navy and well trained troops.
Not all of the Colonists wanted war, some were neutral and others still loyal to Britain.
African Americans in the War
Patriot Defeats and Victories
A Low Point
African Americans Join the Fight
American Victories in New Jersey
Washington saw a chance to catch the British off guard in Princeton and Trenton New Jersey
On Christmas night, Washington and 2,400 other troops crossed the freezing cold Delaware river
They surprised the forces at Trenton and evaded the reinforcements sent, and then drove away the British stationed at Princeton
Our words are:
Loyalist or Tory - An american still loyal to Britain
Patriot or Rebel - An american wanting independence from Britain
Mercenaries - A soldier hired to fight in a foreign army
Militia - A local army raised from the civilians
Chapter 6 Section 1
The Road to The War
Thy Early Years of Thy War
The Patriots had determination to defend their ground as well as the advantage of knowing the land
The British needed to send their people and supplies over thousands of miles of sea and relied mostly on paid soldiers from other countries to fight for them
The Patriots' greatest advantage was George Washington, a great leader.
Raising an Army
Congress was having trouble recruiting soldiers for the Continental Army as each state fought for it's own interests
Soldiers originally signed up for one year of service. Even when it was possible to sign up for more, most still signed up for one year.
Some women also fought in the war, fighting or helping out such as 'Molly Pitcher' who delivered water.
Defeat on Long Island
Washington and the Patriots had only 20,000 troops and were crushed by the British in the Battle of Long Island
Patriot Nathan Hale spied on the British as a Dutch schoolteacher but was found out and hung.
The Patriots were extremely low on supplies, some lacking shoes, socks, and jackets. They were forced to retreat to Pennsylvania across New Jersey
A British Plan for Victory
The British planned to take the Hudson River and split New England off from the Middle Colonies
The plan had three sides:
General Burgoyne leading troops south
Lieutenant Colonel Barry moving east
General Howe moving north from New York
The British Capture Philadelphia
Howe won battles in September 1777 at Brandywine and Paoi near Philadelphia also Howe's troops captured Philadelphia so the continental congress were forced to flee!
Patriots Slow the British
American soldiers led by Benedict Arnold forced the British to retreat from taking Albany.
British General Burgoyne's troops weren't making any progress either - his troops traveled with his 30 wagons of luxury goods.
The Patriots cut down trees to block off Burgoyne's path as well, making them even slower.
The Battle of Saratoga
General Burgoyne's backup troops had not arrived at Saratoga, nor did St. Leger's or Howe's
Patriot troops blocked Burgoyne's exit to the south, trapping him in, and holding when he attacked
General Burgoyne surrendered and resigned as commander of British troops in America
The African Americans wanted to join the loyalists so the king said they can be free if they join the war.
Most of the early battles in the war were involved with few troops at bunker hill for example about 2,200 british troop and America had 1,200.
The loyalists are people who are still loyal to Britain they are also called Tories.
Loyalists changed sides during the war depending on which side was winning.
Friends and family were divided over there loyalty to great Britain.
"I only regret that I have but one life to loose for my country" -Attributed to Nathan Hale, Sept. 22 1776
In the winter of 1776 the Patriots' army was dwindling
Some soldiers had just finished their contracts and left, others ran away
Washington pleaded the continental congress to allow free African Americans to serve
As the need for soldiers grew some states ignored the ban on enlisting African Americans.
It is estimated that as many as 5,000 African Americans were enlisted
Some fought for money or to get their freedom