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Copy of Influential Groups and Individuals from 1837-1867
Transcript of Copy of Influential Groups and Individuals from 1837-1867
Influential Groups and Individuals from 1837-1867
John A MacDondald
The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century. Macdonald served 19 years as Canadian Prime Minister.
When in 1864 no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek political reform. He was the leading figure in the subsequent conferences, which resulted in the British North America Act and the birth of Canada as a nation on 1 July 1867.
-Father of Confederation
-French-Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation
In the years leading up to Confederation, Cartier was a dominant figure in the politics of Canada East as leader of the Parti Bleu. In 1838 he returned to Montreal after a year in exile for his role in the anti-government rebellion. Cartier had several reasons for supporting Confederation, notably his fear of American expansion. He officially entered politics in 1848.
-Father of Confederation and Editor of Toronto Globe
Brown believed that the larger population deserved to have more representatives, rather than an equal number from Upper and Lower Canada. Brown's pursuit of this goal of righting what he perceived to be a great wrong to Canada West was accompanied at times by stridently critical remarks against French Canadians and the power exerted by the Catholic population of Canada East over the affairs of largely Protestant Canada West, referring to the position of Canada West as "a base vassalage to French-Canadian Priestcraft
-Father of Confederation
As a result of the 1848 recession, caused in part by Britain's economic policies, he became an advocate for responsible government.He attended both the Charlottetown, London, and Quebec City Conferences as a supporter of Canadian Confederation. He served as premier of the colony of New Brunswick from 1861 until his government was defeated in the election of 1865.
William Lyon Mackenzie
-Scottish-born Canadian,the first mayor of Toronto and a leader during the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion
In the wake of his electoral defeat, Mackenzie founded a new newspaper, the "Constitution". In the pages of the Constitution, Mackenzie began advocating constitutional change for Upper Canada.He set forth his plan for rebellion in greatest detail. The rebels were instructed to assemble at John Montgomery's tavern on Yonge Street on December 7, and then march into Toronto together.Mackenzie determined that he should lead a scouting expedition to determine Toronto's preparedness. But Mackenzie's troops quickly surrendered after MacNabb opened artillery fire.He fleed to America.
Louis- Joseph Papineau
-leader of the reformist Patriote movement
After the arrival of the 92 Resolutions in Lower Canada on March 6, 1837, he led the movement of protest and participated in numerous popular assemblies. He led the committee that organized the boycott of essentially all British imports to Lower Canada. On November 15, he created the Conseil des patriotes with Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan. He and O'Callaghan fled Montreal for Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu on November 16, after governor Lord Gosford ordered their arrest and that of 25 other Patriot leaders. Papineau and O'Callaghan went to the home of Wolfred Nelson. He crossed the United States border on November 25.
-the first head of a responsible government in Canada
He was a supporter of Papineau and member of the Parti canadien (later the Parti patriote). After the severe consequences of the Rebellions of 1837 against the British authorities, he advocated political reforms within the new Union regime of 1841.
Under this Union of the two Canadas he worked with Robert Baldwin in the formation of a party of Upper and Lower Canadian liberal reformers. He and Baldwin formed a government in 1842 but resigned in 1843. In 1848 he was asked by the Governor-General, Lord Elgin, to form the first administration under the new policy of responsible government. The Lafontaine-Baldwin government, formed on March 11, battled for the restoration of the official status of the French language, which was abolished with the Union Act, and the principles of responsible government and the double-majority in the voting of bills.
While Baldwin was reforming Canada West (Upper Canada), Lafontaine passed bills to abolish the tenure seigneuriale (seigneurial system) and grant amnesty to the leaders of the rebellions in Lower Canada who had been exiled. The bill passed, but it was not accepted by the loyalists of Canada East who protested violently and burned down the Parliament in Montreal.
Governor Francis Bond Head
-Governor of Upper Canada during the rebellion of 1837
Bond Head was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada in 1835 in an attempt by the British government to appease the reformers in the colony, such as William Lyon Mackenzie, who wanted responsible government. He appointed reformer Robert Baldwin to the Executive Council, though this appointment was opposed by the more radical Mackenzie. In any case he ignored Baldwin's advice, and Baldwin resigned; the Legislative Assembly of the 12th Parliament of Upper Canada then refused to pass any money bills, so Bond Head dissolved the government. In the subsequent election campaign, he appealed to the United Empire Loyalists of the colony, proclaiming that the reformers were advocating American republicanism. The Conservative party, led by the wealthy landowners known as the "Family Compact", won the election to the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada, and thus the Reformers were disenfranchised.
-high commissioner of British North America
Durham's detailed and famous Report on the Affairs of British North America (London, January 1839) recommended a modified form of responsible government and a legislative union of Upper Canada, Lower Canada and the Maritime Provinces.
Lord Durham has been lauded in English Canadian history for his recommendation to introduce responsible government. However, the British government did not accept that recommendation and it took 10 more years before Parliamentary democracy was finally established in the colonies. Lord Durham is less well regarded for recommending the union of Upper and Lower Canada.
-the first Governor of the united Province of Canada
Sydenham succeeded Lord Durham as Governor of Canada in 1839. He was responsible for implementing the Union Act in 1840, uniting Upper Canada and Lower Canada as the Province of Canada and moving the seat of government to Kingston. Sydenham also settled the Protestant land dispute in Upper Canada (at this time Canada West), which the Family Compact had interpreted to refer only to the Anglican Church.
-politician who led the first responsible ministry in Canada
Though a moderate reformer, Robert Baldwin strongly disapproved of the rebellion of 1837 – 1838.He and his father William advised Lord Durham to suggest responsible government to the British government.
-Governor General of the Province of Canada
Under Lord Elgin, the first real attempts began at establishing responsible government in Canada. In 1848, the moderate reformers of both Canada East and Canada West, Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin, won their elections, and Lord Elgin asked them to form a government together. Lord Elgin became the first Governor General to remove himself from the affairs of the legislature, leading to the essentially symbolic role that the Governor-General has since had with regards to the political affairs of the country.
-Father of Canadian Confederation.
In 1857, he set up the publication of the New Era in Montreal, Quebec. In his editorials and pamphlets he attacked the influence of the Orange Order and defended the Irish Catholic right to representation in the assembly. In terms of economics he promoted modernisation, calling for extensive economic development by means of railway construction, the fostering of immigration, and the application of a high protective tariff to encourage manufacturing. Politically active, he advocated a new nationality in Canada, to escape the sectarianism of Ireland.
-French Canadian politician and jurist.
He was born in Lower Canada in 1818, the son of Pierre-Antoine Dorion, a merchant and member of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada who supported Louis-Joseph Papineau. A lawyer by training, Dorion served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada from 1854 to 1867 and was a reformer and leading member of the Parti Rouge. Dorion was a supporter of reciprocity with the United States, the separation of church and state in Lower Canada and had a favorable view of American political model. His physical features were quite defined.
- Nova Scotian journalist, politician, and public servant.
Joseph Howe's fisheries duties prevented his attendance at the Charlottetown Conference. By the time he returned to Nova Scotia in November 1864, the Quebec Conference had taken place, and the Quebec Resolutions widely disseminated. He had no chance to influence their content. He led Nova Scotia's anti-Confederation movement believing the Quebec Resolutions to be bad for the province. Because he was still linked with the imperial fishery he expressed his initial opposition anonymously through the Botheration Letters, a series of 12 editorials that appeared in the Morning Chronicle between January and March 1865. This was the extent of his participation in the union debate until March 1866.
William Alexander Smith
-the founder of the Boys' Brigade
In October 1869, a few days before he became fifteen, William Smith entered his uncle’s business. Alex. Fraser & Co. were wholesale dealers in “soft goods”, shawls being of 19, he was promoted to the rank of Lance-Corporal. He also joined the Church of Scotland in that same year.Smith was commissioned into the Rifle Volunteers in 1877 and promoted to Lieutenant later the same year. He also became a Sunday School teacher. It was a combination of these two activities that led him to start the Boys' Brigade on 4 October 1883 at Free Church Mission Hall, North Woodside Road, Glasgow. In 1909 he was knighted by King Edward VII for his services to children. He also eventually reached the rank of Major in the Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers.
-Scottish journalist and inventor
In 1787 Tilloch moved to London, and in 1789, in connection with others, purchased the ‘Star,’ an evening daily paper, of which he remained editor until 1821. At that time forgery of Bank of England notes was common, and Tilloch in 1790 laid before the British ministry a mode of printing which would render forgery impossible. Receiving no encouragement, he brought his process before the notice of the Commission d'Assignats at Paris, but then came the outbreak of war.
A treaty concluded in 1836 by the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, Sir Francis Bond Head, established Manitoulin Island in Georgian Bay as a reserve for the dispossessed First Nations population. The goal was to encourage these landless peoples to relocate to the island where they would be removed from the more harmful aspects of colonial society (specifically alcohol and prostitution) and where they would adapt to the new colonial reality at a controlled pace. However, few First Nations actually relocated to Manitoulin Island. Most continued to live on small plots of lands set aside by the treaties or on the lands of religious missions trying to convert them to Christianity. Some squatted on Crown Lands, living an increasingly destitute life. Meanwhile, the Crown continued to conclude land surrender treaties with First Nations until 1862.
Between 1866 and 1870, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, who were based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on Britain to withdraw from Ireland. They divided Catholic Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians. The Protestant Irish were generally loyal to Britain and fought with the Orange Order against the Fenians. While the U.S. authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms, there is speculation that some in the U.S. government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at actions that could have been construed as British assistance to the Confederacy during the American Civil War. There were five Fenian raids of note.