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Temperate Deciduous Forest
Transcript of Temperate Deciduous Forest
and therefore go through the four seasons. Trees in
deciduous forests lose their leaves in the winter. What are Deciduous Forests? Niche of a Squirrel Squirrels have an interesting role in
the temperate deciduous forest biome. Squirrels search for acorns and bury them in the ground. However, some of them are left behind on the forest floor. These acorns germinate and grow into new trees. Niche of a Pileated Woodpecker Pileated Woodpeckers make their homes in holes they dig out of trees. This is where they create their nest. After they have raised their brood, they often abandon the nest. Other animals then use the hole to create their own home. Sometimes, when digging a hole from the tree, the trunk snaps in half causing the tree to fall down, thus creating a home for floor dwellers such as insects. Keystone Species Gopher Tortoise The Gopher Tortoise is a keystone species because it digs burrows that provide shelter for itself and over 360 different organisms. White-tailed Deer The White-tailed deer is considered a keystone species because, as a herbivore, it eats plants and keeps their populations in check. It also is an energy source for higher level consumers. Niche of Broadleaf Trees Broadleaf trees drop their leaves in the winter season. Their leaves accumulate on the forest floor and create the O horizon. The nutrients from the leaves provide fertile soil for new plants to grow in the spring. Species Interaction Kudzu competes with trees in the forest for sunlight by growing on top of the trees
Many species of birds live in trees
Squirrels and birds disperse seeds throughout the forest floor, which in turn germinate and grow new trees Biome Distribution Evolution/Natural Selection Deciduous trees grow larger leaves to absorb the maximum amount of light before they shed during the fall. This allows the trees to absorb more energy, supply other animals and insects with food, and add to the O Horizon. (caused by temperature change throughout the year)
The European Red Squirrel has strong teeth and four long, clawed toes on each foot. These adaptations allow the squirrel to open pinecones and other seeds, and support itself while climbing the bark of trees. The Red Squirrel also has large ear tufts in the winter, which disappear in the summer. (caused by the forest and temperature change)
Various primary consumers’ fur coats are the same color as the surrounding environment, usually brown. This protects these animals from secondary consumers. (natural selection) FOOD WEB Species Movement “Warblers, robins, and other bird species migrate to these forests during the summer to feed and breed. Many of these species are declining in numbers because of loss or fragmentation of their summer and winter habitats.” Ecosystem Services Ecological Succession Deforestation - to clear land for development
Forest Fires - natural and human caused Threats to Biodiversity Deforestation for agriculture - tree diversity loss. China has been clearing natural trees for 4,000 years. This happens to take advantage of VERY fertile soil that is good for agricultureDeforestation for Development - Climate warm, but not as warm as the tropics, fitting for human population
Acid Rain - Coal burning
Logging - Hardwoods as oppossed to soft woods in the coniferous forests, hardwoods grow back slowly "Today, on a worldwide basis, this biome has been disturbed by human activity more than any other terrestrial biome.” Endangered Species Blue-spotted Salamander - Human development impacts the habitat of the salamander, the habitat they depend on for breeding and living the rest of the year
Puerto Rican Sharp-Shinned Hawk - Construction of roads, power lines, etc. reduced habitat, infestation of bot fly larvae in the nests and Pearly-eyed Thrasher preying on the nest
Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake - Human development, run over by cars, loss of amphibians for prey, humans killing out of fear
Long-Eared Owl - Conversion of softwood to hardwood forests, forest thinning, because of habitat loss, loss of nesting sites and prey abundance, predation
Wood Turtle - human development (roads, etc), collection for pets, logging alters habitat and increases number of predators
Chestnut tree - Animals (ticks, fleas, etc) bring diseases, as well as wood or transplanted trees
Bald Eagle - Hunted for game, trapped, run into power lines, destruction of habitat from human impact, poisons in air and water
Peregrine Falcon - Ate carrier pigeons, so shot down in abundance in England, Human development occurs near water where these like to live, DDT used as a pesticide which kills unhatched chicks
Northern Spring Salamander - disruption of cold water springs and woodlands, water temperatures rise making it inhabitable for salamanders, pollution, degradation, siltation of streams
Giant Panda - Bamboo species bloom and die at the same time making pandas have to relocate to follow their energy source Invasive Species Asian gypsy moth; tree pest, consumes tons of foliage.
Citrus long-horned beetle; lays eggs in tree bark, where larvae eat and destroy trees.
Screwworm; feeds on livestock, especially cattle.
Tropical bont tick; infects and spreads fatal diseases throughout livestock.
Kudzu; plant that covers and strangles everything else.