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Psychology unit 7: Personality

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Joe Berchtold

on 3 April 2013

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Transcript of Psychology unit 7: Personality

Less Intelligent
Affected by Mood
Tough Minded
Self Assured
Group Dependent
Relaxed Outgoing
More Intelligent
Emotionally Stable
Happy Go Lucky
Self Sufficient
Tense Cattell’s 16 Source Traits The relatively stable patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving Trait- a word that describes a relatively constant aspect of a person’s personality

Several different psychologists and ideas in this area It ALL starts with Gordon Allport looked through the dictionary for possible traits and found 18,000 of them – narrowed that down to 4,500

organized traits into 3 distinct categories
Cardinal traits: Characteristics we exhibit ALL of the time (very rare)

Central traits: Characteristics we exhibit most of the time

Secondary traits: Characteristics we exhibit sometimes Eysenck disagrees… Hans Eysenck

Played around with factor analysis and concluded that there were just 2 basic dimensions of personality

Stability vs. Instability

Introversion vs. Extroversion The Big Five Openness to Experience – Open minded, willing to try new things

Conscientiousness – Dutiful, dedicated, organized

Extroversion - Warm, talkative, energetic

Agreeableness – Sympathetic, kind, trusting

Neuroticism(Emotional Stability) – are emotions experienced easily without getting upset, or are unpleasant emotions a common occurrence? Socio-Cultural Theory - which is more important, the individual person or the community/group as a whole? How much power do we feel we have to change the world, our situation, etc? Do we seek out the unknown or do we avoid it? Individuality Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance What aspects of a culture effect our personality, or who we become? What are women "supposed" to be like?
What are women "supposed" to do? Gender Roles Do we work now so that we may reap our rewards in the future? Or do we do what feels good in the moment?

-immediate gratification vs. delayed gratification Future Rewards (Personality) Internal States
(thoughts, feelings, values, opinions, etc. Behaviors Environment We either feel powerless, that fate controls our lives and we can't change it. Just accept your fate. We feel powerful, that we are in control of our own lives. OR... Albert Bandura
and the Bobo doll experiment -Curiosity vs. Tradition Non Trait Theory Typology It is normal for men to play field hockey in many other countries Erin Dimeglio, first female high school quarterback What are men "supposed" to be like?
What are men "supposed" to do? What kinds of toys did you play with when you were a kid? Probably don't see this very often, do you? Trait Theory Being the Ego is tough! HALP! The Ego will use Defense Mechanisms to protect itself when it cannot handle the Id/Super Ego conflict

Defense Mechanisms are distortions of reality that come from the unconscious portion of the Ego Considered the grandfather of modern psychology

Freud suggested that most of our personality is actually unconscious (a.k.a. outside of awareness, we don’t know about it)

Thought that all of our actions were driven by the need for sex and aggression the most conscious part of the mind that finds compromises between the competing Id and Super Ego Rationalization Justifying or making up excuses Repression Burying anxiety or guilt provoking thoughts/memories in the unconscious
We quite literally cannot remember repressed moments

abuse Denial Refusing to accept the reality of an unpleasant situation Projection Inner feelings are thrown, or projected, outside the self and assigned to others

Ex. When a person thinks others dislike him, when, in reality, he really dislikes himself Reaction Formation Replacing an unacceptable feeling or urge with an opposite one Regression Going back to an earlier and less mature pattern of behavior

Ex. Throw a temper tantrum, cry loudly, make faces, pouting Displacement Cannot take out your anger on the source of your frustrations, so you displace your anger and take it out on a less powerful person

Ex. Yelling at a sibling when you want to yell at your parents Sublimation Redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire

Ex. Angered by your friends’ arrogant attitude, so you work extra hard at soccer practice-channeling aggressive feelings into physical activities Psychosexual Stages of Development We start out ALL Id

Super Ego and Ego are developed over time through a series of conflicts during childhood

Conflicts are centered on where we get pleasure from Oral Stage: 0-2 First way we get pleasure is through the mouth (food, drink, breastfeeding)

This is why little kids are always putting things in their mouths

Oral fixation Anal Stage: 2 - 3 Child learns about the process of "elimination" (a.k.a. pooping) and so learns to enjoy the feeling of control

Potty training

Anal retentive vs. anal expulsive Phallic Stage: 3-5 Children discover sexual differences and develop distinct, gender based personality traits

Examples: Oedipus Complex, Electra Complex Latent Stage: 6-Puberty (12ish) Little new development occurs, often people are not interested in the other sex at all (cootie phase)

Focus becomes learning of social and intellectual skills Genital Stage: Puberty on The interest in sex reemerges, relationships with other become major focus EGO Behaviorism Personality is developed through classical and operant conditioning (rewards and punishments) B. F. Skinner John Watson Humanism Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Alfred Adler Carl Jung Erik Erikson Birth Order First Child initially have all the attention, but then lose it to brothers/sisters •Goal setters
•High achievers
•Rule Keepers
•Detail people Middle Child Often considered the "lost" or "forgotten" child • Flexible
•Competitive Last Child Often overindulged, considered "the baby" •Risk takers
•Idea people
•Question authority Only Child Similar to first borns, but never suffer the feeling of dethronement •Mature faster
•Get along well
with older people
•Attention seekers
•Use adult language
•Prefer adult company
•Have difficulty sharing -worked with Freud for several years

-eventually Freud and he split up, and Jung went on to form his own theories

-Like Freud, Jung emphasized the role of the unconscious in determining human behavior

-Jung, however, believed our personality is mainly determined by something he called the collective unconscious -Essentially the same as Freud's "Ego"
-Our day to day awareness and memories -stores repressed memories and forgotten individual experiences
-not Id/Super Ego driven, more like personal experience warehouse -a group of instincts, ideas and beliefs that are present in all people from birth

-inherited from the combined experience of many, many past generations

-Jung called these ideas common to all people Archetypes Archetypes of the person:
Anima - masculinity
Animus - femininity

Archetypal Characters:
The Child
The Hero
The Great Mother
The Wise old man or Sage
The Damsel in distress
The Trickster or Fox
The Devil or Satan -was trained in psychoanalysis by Anna Freud, Sigmund's daughter

-known for his theory of the Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development Personality Social Cognitive Theory Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis The 3 Parts of Personality Mechanisms Psychosexual Stages Personality is based on our desire to be the best we can possibly be, to grow and improve upon ourselves. Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow -was an associate of Freud's

-split off from Freud's ideas after several years to develop his own approach to personality, which he termed Individual Psychology 4,500 traits is still WAY too many Raymond Cattell
Took Allport’s 4,500 words and compared them using a process called factor analysis to narrow it down to just 16 traits, which he called source traits The Id is all about primitive instincts and biological desires
Life instinct (Eros) – food, water, sex
Death instinct (Thanatos) – aggression, destruction

the Id is responsible for anxiety the conscience, what makes you follow the rules of society. (What you “should” do)

The Super ego is responsible for guilt Ego Super Ego Id The Iceberg Analogy Freudian Slips Angel and Devil on shoulders Freud in the media Defense Ex. A divorced father, who resents having his child for the weekend, feels wrong about his feelings, so he overcompensates with love, toys, and exciting trips Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this tage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, failure results in regret and bitterness. Karen Horney "Moving Toward People" "Moving Away from People" Aggression Withdrawal Compliance Alfred Adler The Inferiority Complex "Moving against people" The
Neo-Freudians A person with an inferiority complex is lacking in self esteem/self worth, and is often plagued by doubt and uncertainty

Oftentimes a person will compensate for feelings of inferiority by displaying a superior attitude
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