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7 Perspectives of Psychology
Transcript of 7 Perspectives of Psychology
Psychology Scientific study of all mental
activities associated with thinking,
knowing, remembering, and communicating Cognitive Sub-discipline of psychology exploring
internal mental processes. It is the study
of how people perceive, remember, think,
speak, and solve problems Examples: Cognitive Therapy
Improving memory People: Ulric Neisser: created with helping develop cognitive psychology
Wilhelm Wundt:experimented on memory & sensory perception which thought were closely related to the brain "The speculative part of my work
is that these cognitive tasks- ways
of thinking analytically- are tied to
nature's laws." -Edward Tufte Questions: How do we perceive information?
How do we process the information once it is perceived?
Do people with learning disabilities go through normal stages of brain development? Social-Culture the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior. How factors in the social environment impact people’s psychological processes. Examples: *Language
*Type of Household (poor,average,wealthy)
*Beliefs Lev Vygotsky: Suggested that culture and the society have a large impact on the psychological processes of people
Jean-Claude Croizet- He studies the psychological consequences that arise from social inequalities; such as social class and stereotype threats. People: Questions: *How much does social media affect the behaviors and mental processes of people?*How do cultural traditions influence psychological processes of individuals?*How does culture impact learning? "Realizing that our actions, feelings and behavior are the result of our own images and beliefs gives us the level that psychology has always needed for changing personality"
- Maxwell Maltz Biological Branch of Psychology that studies the link between biological (such as neuroscience & heavier genetics) and psychological processes Study of how individuals
react differently to environmental
situations due to genetic predispositions Example: When you feel stressed or nervous,
your heart starts to pound & your
palms get sweaty "I align myself with almost all researchers in assuming that anything we do is a composite of whatever genetic limitations were given to us by our parents and whatever kinds of environmental opportunities are available."
-Howard Gardner People: *Howard Gardner:studied brain damage & neurological disorders
*William James:humans are motivated by a variety of biological instincts
*Charles Darwin:demonstrated how genetics& natural selection influence the behavior of humans Questions: *How do external stress factors relate to mental illness? Evolutionary The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection Study of how behavior and mental processes
changed over time to help individuals adapt to their changing environment;through the principle of natural selection "The most adaptive behaviors in an individual are the one
that grow stronger & become habitual"-William James Examples: Parenting, Language, Perception People: Charles Darwin: showed how evolution & genetics affected the behavior of humans
William James: created the concept of functionalism, which studied how people functioned to adapt to their environment Questions: *How did evolution lead to the presence of traits such as violence, aggression, selfishness, & territoriality?
*How has the human species evolved within the last 10,000 years? Humanistic Psychodynamic A historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people & the individual's potential for personal growth A perspective that is optimistic & focuses on methods that allow people to reach their full potential & achieve self-actualization "One's only rival is one's own potentialities. One's only failures is failing to live up to one's own possibilities. In this sense, every man can be a king, and must therefore be treated like a king."
-Abraham Maslow Behavioral People: Abraham Maslow: formed the hierarchy of needs. He believed for a person to progress in growth, lower basic needs must be met first. The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes:
1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.
4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. *How do psychological processes affect individual motivation and abnormal behaviors?*How do positive/negative emotions affect a person’s self-regard?
*How does physical health affect the growth potential of individuals? Questions: Examples: Mainly used in client-centered therapy The study of how unconscious motives affect behavior and thinking; conflicting with the conscious parts of the mind. How any subtle actions are caused by unconscious activities (which are rooted mostly from childhood experiences) A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. “The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind." -Sigmund Freud *Sigmund Freud: Believed that childhood experiences and the unconscious mind affected all aspects of behavior. *Hermann Helmhotz (1821-1894): created the theory of color vision which experiments with the unconscious interferences.
*Can the frequency of blinking reveal what people are thinking?*How do past life experiences affect current behaviors and thinking processes?
*A persons unconscious may contain feelings of anger towards a parent, but the person may avoid them for reasons other than anger; perhaps too busy a schedule to see them. *A person who was raised in multiple foster homes as a child may have unconscious trust development difficulties.
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning. A branch of psychology that studies observable mental and physical activities that occur due to internal muscles and glands responding to external stimuli. Conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment are important concepts to this branch of study, which emphasizes behavior as a result of learning. "Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept." –Watson *B.F. Skinner: Believed that behavior was learned through example and reinforcement
*John B. Watson: Believed observable behaviors should be the main focus of psychology. *How do rewards & punishments affect the pace of learning?
*How do watched behaviors of parents influence children? *Setting up an incentive system in order to get your child to do chores. People: Questions: Examples: Example: People: Questions: