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Hazrat Uthman (RA)
Transcript of Hazrat Uthman (RA)
Hazrat Uthman (RA) Lineage
Al-Isabah, 4/377, no. 5465
'Uthman ibn 'Affan, by Sadiq 'Arjoon, p. 45
Acceptance of Islam
Thirty-four years old
Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq
Fourth man to embrace Islam
Ibn Ishaq said: "The first person
to become Muslim after Abu Bakr, 'Ali and Zayd ibn Harithah was 'Uthman"
al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah by ibn Hisham, 1/287-289
Mubārakfūrī, S. (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Mak̲h̲tūm =. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.)
Muhammad, T., Ibn Kathir, I., Tabari, Sutuyi, Abu Al-Yazid, N., Kamara, M., & McEwan, J. (2001). Biographies of the rightly-guided caliphs. El-Mansurah, Egypt: Dar Al-Manarah.
Ashraf, S. (2004). Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and companions. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd.
Ayoub, M. (2003). The crisis of Muslim history. Oxford: Oneworld.
Nasr, S. (2003). Islam. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.
Attributes of Hazrat Uthman (RA)
Dhun Nurain (The Man/Possessor of Two Lights)
Umm Kulthoom (RA)
Freeing wells for Muslims
Freeing slaves every Friday
200 saddles camels
200 ounces gold
900 equipped camels
His (RA) Relationship with the Prophet
"Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise in return for a calamity that will befall him"
al-Bukhari, no. 3695
"Be calm for there is no one on you but a Prophet, a Siddeeq or a martyr"
Muslim, no. 2417
"Should I not feel shy before a man before whom the angels feel shy ?
Muslim, no. 2401
"The most sincere (of this ummah) in modesty is 'Uthman"
Musnad Anas ibn Malik, 12493
Acceptance and Implementation of Hazrat Umar's (RA) Policies
REVOLT BY ABDULLAH IBN SABA
Jew from tribe Himyar
Return of the Prophet (SAW)
“Verily He Who ordained the Quran for thee, will bring thee back to the Place of Return”
Hazrat Ali was nominated as successor by Prophet (SAW) and should be the Caliph.
First person to disrespect openly companions, Abu Bakr and Umar (RA).
REVOLT BY ABDULLAH IBN SABA
Ali (RA) accused him of lying and didn’t associate with him
Travelled to Basrah, Kufah, Syria and settled in Egypt
Two Quraysh joined the movement
Muhammad ibn Abu Hudhayfah
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
UTHMAN (RA) INVESTIGATION
Companions advised to investigate into the rumors
Hazrat Uthman (RA) appointed
Muhammad b Masalma to Kufa
Usama b Zaid to Basra
Abdullah b Umar to Syria
Ammar b Yasir to Egypt
For conformation that the investigation results were true
Issued official announcement that everyone should present their complaints in Hajj of 655 CE
No one filed a complaint.
Most revolt was in Egypt so Uthman (RA) called governor of Egypt, Abdullah Ibn Sa’ad, to Medina to discuss matter.
In his absence
Left power with his deputy
Muhammad b Abu Hudhayfa captured Egypt
Abdullah Ibn Sa’ad returned to Egypt
Failed to recapture Egypt
Retired to Ramlah
KUFAH AND BASRA’S CAPTURE
Musa Ash’an, governor of Kufah, was a nominee of rebels
Abdullah b Aamir, governor of Basra, left for Hajj
Thus Egypt, Kufa, and Basra were cut off from Uthman’s caliphate
1000 persons sent from Egypt to Medina.
Disguised as pilgrims
Mention their own believes to Caliph.
Return to the people and claim he admitted those believes and did not give them up or repent.
Dress as pilgrims, besiege his house and tell him to stand down.
If he doesn’t we kill him.
They advised Uthman (RA) to kill the rebels.
He disagreed with them as:
We will forgive them and inform them of our efforts
They will be punished if they commit a punishable crime or declare disbelief.
Uthman (RA) should join him Syria
Send Syrian army
Why didn’t he accept the offer?
The siege was not severe at the start
Uthman (RA) led prayers in Prophet’s Mosque.
Uthman (RA) address the gathering
Obey Allah and their leader
Refrain from violence
Warned about conspiracies
Appealed to rebels to retire from Medina
Not support the rebels and support truth and justice
Supporters stood up but rebels forced them to sit down.
Rebels started threatening him.
Jamjah Ghaffan broke the stick of Uthman (RA)
Stones were thrown and hit Uthman (RA), he became unconscious.
SIEGE OF THE HOUSE
After Friday prayer the household was strictly sieged as people of Medina were not showing support.
Umayyad and a few other supporters.
The siege included
Uthman (RA) was not allowed out of the premises
Prayers led by rebel leader Amir Ghafiqi
Forbade entry of food, provisions, water
Hazrat Umm Habiba brought water and provisions but was not allowed inside.
Approximately 20 days
LETTER TO PILGRIMS
Abdullah bin Abbas was appointed as “Amir-ul-Hajj” and a letter was entrusted to him.
He did not ask for help
Discouraged violence with rebels
He was concerned more for the welfare of the community and not his own safety
People dispersed after listening to the letter
By the time Abdullah b Abbas brought back the letter he was assassinated
Zia Misn’s “Othman bin Affan” and Taha Hussain’s “Othman”
The rebels tried to break in and burn down the house but failed.
They climbed the walls.
Uthman (RA) was reciting Quran silently.
Muhammad b Abi Bakr did not harm him.
Al Ghaffiqi hit him with his axe.
Also attacked by sword.
Naa’ilah, his wife, tried to protect him thus her fingers were chopped off.
They robbed the Caliph’s house and Baitul-Mal.
Friday 18th Dhul Hajjah 656 CE
Allegiance was given to him on the basis of
Laws of Allah
Sunnah of His Messenger (SAW)
Policies of his two predecessors (Shaikhayn)
Hazrat Umar (RA) developed
Laying down foundations
Establishing guidelines and principles
Increasing the sources of income
Setting out guidelines on expenditure
Uthman followed in their footsteps implementing the ruling of Allah on earth with regard to financial and other matters
How Zakah was collected for the Bait al-Mal and how it was distributed
How the Ahl al-Kitab paid the jizyah to the Bait al-Mal
Security was provided to them
Made use of other public services
How the Mujihideen acquired booty and sent one-fifth of it (
) to the Bait al-Mal
Distributed it to orphans, the poor, wayfarers
Policies Adopted by Hazrat Uthman (RA)
Connected to Islam and implementation of Islamic teachings
Protection of sources of income
Public expenditure aimed at supporting the message of Islam and the good of the Muslims.
Forbid extravagance and fight against it, for Allah does not love the extravagant
Islam also forbids the foolish from having control of the public wealth
The public income should be from halal sources
Some income is to be spent on those who need it most among the people
Distinguishing Fact of Hazrat Uthman (RA) and other Khalifah's Financial Policies
Governors at the time of
Hazrat Uthman (RA)
When Umar (RA) died, his governor in Makkah was Khalid ibn al-'Aas ibn Hisham
After Umar (RA) he was governor for an unknown time periods but Uthman (RA) dismissed him. There are no reports of his actions.
Uthman (RA) appointed
'Ali ibn Rabee'ah ibn 'Abd al-'Uzza
Also Abd Allah ibn 'Amr al-Hadrami
Khalid ibn al-'Aas ibn Hisham second time.
And many others over Makkah
Talreed Asma' as-Sahlibah, by Imam al-Dhahabl, p. 151
Abd Allah ibn 'Amr al-Hadrami was the governor at the time of Utman (RA) death.
Ali dismissed him and appointed someone else.
Makkah enjoyed stability and peace
Nihayat al-lrb fi Funoon al-Adab by al-Nuwayri, 2/72
Al-Wilayah ‘ala al-Buldan fi 'Asr al-khulafa al-Rashideen, by Dr. 'Abd-Allah al- 'Umari, 1/166
Al-Wilayah 'ala al-Buldan, 1/167
It was the center of the caliphate and delegations came there from various regions
It was a military center.
Senior Shabahs, Muhajireen, Ansari thus alike lived there.
Because of his position as caliph, Uthamn (RA) lived there
Ask about the prices of food
About how the people were
Uthman (RA) travelled for Hajj and appointed in his absence
Zayd ibn Thabit
Tareekh al-Madinah, 3/961,962 (reference)
Al-Wilayah 'ala al-Buldan, 1/168, 169 (reference)
The Start of The Fitnah
The Siege & Assassination
Mu’awiyah was the governor.
Developments occurred and he added other areas and became governor of all of (greater) Syria.
Strongest governor of Uthman (RA)
At the beginning
Umayr ibn Sa’d al-Ansari was the governor of Homs, competed and lost.
He became sick and asked the Caliph to relieve him from duties.
Alqamah ibn Mahra
Governor of Palestine –died
Uthman (RA) passed his duties to Mu’awiyah
Syria came into his control two years after Uthman (RA) became Caliph.
Most events of Jihad
Still adjacent to Byzantine.
the way was open for Mu‘awiyah to engage in jihad in that direction
The Province of Syria
Amr ibn al-'Aas
Governor of Egypt during the time of Umar (RA)
Ruled for four years.
He was the governor at the time of Umar’s (RA) death
Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d.
Helped Uthman (RA) during the start of Caliphate in Egypt.
Amr ib al-’Aas in conquest of Palestine and Egypt.
Appointed the governor of upper Egypt by Umar (RA)
Amr ibn al-'Aas insisted to dismiss him. Utman (RA) refused and instead dismissed him from post.
Launched a raid on Alexandria
Killed all the Muslims
Amr ibn al-Aas was commander of Egyptian army.
The Province of Egypt
Abu Moosa al-Ash'ari
Governor of Umar (RA)
Greatest Islamic military centers
Umar (RA) instructions for the caliph who came after him to leave Abu Moosa in that post for four years after his death.
Basra played a prominent role in Jihad
Launched a campaign against the rebel and established Islam
Setting irrigation and digging channels during reign of Uthman (RA)
He was dismissed in 29 AH by Uthman (RA)
His successor was Abd-Allah ibn Aamir
Dismissal was honor for Moosa
The Province of Basra
Abd-Allah ibn Aamir
Utman (RA) introduce political changes in provincial administration
Troops of Oman and Bahrain under his control
Basra became an important administrative center.
Responsible for appointing governors under his authority.
Basra became famous its Bait-ul-Mal
People were happy with him despite the rumors that Uthman (RA) appointed him because he was his relative.
The Province of Basra
al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah
Became governor at the end of Umar (RA) reign.
Uthman (RA) appointed Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas in his place
His governorship of Kufah lasted for one year and a few months
Governorship was shared by Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas and Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ood
Sa’d led the prayer and was uncharged of troops
Mas’ood was incharged of Bait-ul-Mal
Difference aroused between them and Uthman (RA) dismissed Sa’d from his post.
The punishment for Sa'd was dismissal and the punishment for Ibn Mas'ood was leaving him in his post, as al-Tabari says.
The Province of Kufa
Al-Waleed ibn 'Uqbah ibn Abi Mu'eet
Appointed by Utman (RA)
Commander of Abu Bakr’s army in Jordan
Worked for Umar (RA) as governor of Al-Jazeerah
great deal of experience of Kufah and its troops, border posts and other affairs.
Difference of opinion with Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood and Uthman (RA) dismissed him
He was loved by the people of Kufah until some incident occurred and he acquired some enemies.
Accused for drinking wine and he was dismissed
Sa'eed ibn al-'Aas as his successor in 30 AH
Wanted to put an end of fitnah in Kufa
People of Kufah objected to and demanded their dismissal
Abu Moosa al-Ash'ari was appointed next
Remaind governor until Uthman (RA) was killed.
Fitnah emerged in Kufah
its people became well known for causing trouble for their governors and rejecting them in many cases.
The Province of Kufa
Losing the Prophet's Ring in well Aris