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Transcript of Achievement Motivation
Emphasis on learning and mastery, effort-based goals
Emphasis on social comparison, rewards for outperforming others
Mastery-based climates associated with:
Task orientation (e.g., Ebbeck & Becker, 1994)
Greater enjoyment, higher perceived competence, higher skill development (e.g., Theeboom, DeKnop, & Weiss, 1995) Motivational Climate This area of research addresses the question,
How does the situation influence motivation?
2 types of reward structures:
Competitive – stresses social comparison
Individualistic – stresses personal improvement
Does everyone interpret rewards the same way?
Motivational climate = an individual’s perception of the goal structure Reward Structures
(Ames, 1984) High Task orientation
wins or losses can result in positive feelings of competence
High Ego orientation
wins fine, but losses infer low pc so more likely to avoid future similar situations
Task and Ego NOT opposite ends of a continuum - can be high on BOTH How do these factors influence performance? Ego goal perspective – goals based on outperforming others or performing equally well with less effort. Differentiated conception of ability.
Task goal perspective – goals based on learning or task mastery. Associated with an undifferentiated conception of ability.
A Task perspective is favored – WHY? Goal Perspective Theory
(Nicholls, 1989) Achievement motivation derived from an individual’s goals and the meaning they attach to success and failure.
Demonstrating competence is key:
maximize opportunities to display competence (success)
Minimize opportunities that demonstrate low ability (failure)
Individuals differ in how they view competence and ability Goal Perspective Theory
(Nicholls, 1989) Achievement behaviors:
Definitions of ability are key and change with age:
For young children, ability is self-referenced
Effort = ability (kids that try harder are more able)
Around 8-9 years, ability is norm-referenced
Ability = how good you are compared to others; some differentiation between effort and ability
By 11-12 years, ability and effort differentiated
Ability stable, and ability limits impact of effort The Motivation to Achieve “The direction and intensity of effort” Theories of Motivation ( must be a psychological theory) Pitch Me Your
Theory Be able to explain:
Why do some athletes try harder than others?
Why do some athletes get upset after a loss/others view loss as a learning experience? Remember:
Must Be Testable Approach Avoid Low Intensity High Intensity