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Copy of The California Psychological Inventory

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Kenny Jackson

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The California Psychological Inventory

The California Psychological Inventory
History
Developed by Harrison Gough
1948 15 scales developed
Published in final form in 1957 CPI 434
Revised in 1987 adding two new scales
1997 revised again to conform to 1990 ADA
A brief form of the test, CPI 260, was published in 2002
Development
Developed selecting 468 questions from 3500
178 questions verbatim from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
35 questions were similar
255 questions were specific to CPI
Comprised of 20 scales, seven special purpose scales, and 3 vectors
Purpose
CPI referred to as "the sane man's MMPI" (Groth-Marnat, 2009)
Test the personality for non-pathological traits
General maladjustment can be detected in lower scores
Questions are based on common concepts (i.e. self-control)
Ultimate goal: Paint a portrait of a person that friend's and family would recognize
Strengths
Wide variety of uses (i.e. occupational, educational, vocational)
Appropriate for normalized populations
CPI questions are strait forward and understood by general public
CPI questions are based on "folk concepts" that are widely accepted across society and some cultures
Questions are true and false and easily scored
20 "Folk concept" scales
1. Dominance = Leadership traits
2. Capacity for Status = Social efficacy
3. Sociability = Participation in social activities
4. Social Presence = Self-assuredness and assertiveness
5. Self-Acceptance = Personal worth
6. Independence = Autonomy
7. Empathy = Perceiving the inner state of others
8. Responsibility = Conscientiousness
9. Socialization = assesses anti-social behavior
10. Self-Control = Person's ability to direct behavior
20 "Folk Concept" scales
11. Good Impression = Person trying to make a
favorable impression
12. Communality = Detecting random answers
13. Sense of Wellbeing = Level of adjustment and
degree of psychological stress
14. Tolerance = Degree of social intolerance
15. Achievement via Conformance = degree of
conformity towards achievement
16. Achievement via Independence = Self-sufficiency and
self efficacy
17. Intellectual Efficiency = How person uses intelligence
18. Psychological Mindedness = Insight into anothers needs
and motivation
19. Flexibility = Adaptability and willingness to change
20. Femininity/Masculinity = How feminine or masculine a
personality is and not based on gender
Seven Special Purpose scales
1. Managerial Potential = Identifies
supervisory skills
2. Work Orientation = Strong work ethic
3. Creative Temperament = Creative/Artistic perception
4. Leadership Potential = Effective and comfortable as leaders
5. Amicability = Identifies people who are considerate and
friendly
6. Law Enforcement Orientation = View societal laws
favorably and would function well in law enforcement
7. Tough Mindedness = A person's reliance on facts to make
a decision rather than emotion

Three Vectors
1. Externality/Internality = Introversion/extroversion


2. Norm Favoring/Norm Questioning = Levels of conformity


3. Realization = Levels of self-actualization
Four Types
1. Alphas = Person who is extroverted and adheres
to social norms

2. Betas = Persons who prefer external structure
and are comfortable being a follower

3. Gammas = Extroverted and question norms of
society and traditional beliefs

4. Deltas = Persons who are introverted, artistic,
and visionary. Question the norms of society
Limitations
True and false questions: "eliminates information about absolute strength of individual characteristics..." (VanHutton, 1990, p. 75)
Few studies on the validity of CPI by clinicians in actual practice
Some scales overlap and are similar in concept
Length of test: 434 questions
Cultural bias
By Mark Sabo
Validity
CPI receives validity by prediction
CPI is not concerned "with areas of psychometric elegance, such as whether scales avoid overlap or measure psychometrically sound traits, than with the practical usefulness of the scales in providing accurate descriptions" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 340) - In other words, the person that scores high will be described by someone who knows him as having the indicated attributes
Predictive validity has been found useful in some studies
Reliability
CPI compares with other personality inventories favorably
The median reliability for the CPI 434 is .68 and for the CPI 260 is .66
CPI related well to core five factors of personality: Neurotisim, Extroversion, Openness to Experience Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness
CPI correlated with four of the five scales
Cultural Relevance
Prior to the 1987 revision Whites scored significantly higher that Native American and Mexican students in a study at a junior high school
Test given to Taiwanese students enter graduate program in the U.S.
Students results indicated more norm abiding and less self-actualization - Individualistic culture versus Collective culture
Some scales showed no significant difference (i.e. Femininity/Masculinity, Socialization)
No significant difference found between White or African American men or women
The differentiation between delinquent and non-delinquent males in U.S was comparable to India in a study
Use in Therapy
CPI scoring is very complex
Requires someone with specific training
Time consuming
References
Gough, H. G. (1995). Career assessment and the California psychological
inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(2), 101-122.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment: Fifth
edition. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kwan, K. & Felito, A. (2001). Handbook of multicultural assessment: Second
edition: Chapter 11: Use of 16PF and CPI with U.S. racial and ethnic
minorities: Issues of cultural application and validity.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Van Hutton, V. (1990). Test review: The California psychological inventory.
Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 75-77
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