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History of Education
Transcript of History of Education
American Education Town Schools Located in New England colonies, the town school was a one room elementary school for children ages 5 to 14. With the teacher at the pulpit and the students on benches, the children studied until called upon. Attendance was poor due to weather and children working
on the farm. Private Schools Located in the southern colonies, these schools were attended by upper class children. Subject matter consisted of reading, writing, arithmetic, and studying the Bible. Lower class children attended charity schools to learn the "three R's", recited hymns, and learned vocational skills. The Colonial Period
1642-1776 Colleges College was influenced by Puritans who studied the classics, Scriptures, Latin, and Greek. Harvard and Yale focused on Latin, grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, astronomy, ethics, metaphysics, and natural sciences. Foundations for education were rooted in the experiences located in colonial Massachusetts, founded by Puritans. The first schools were related to the Puritan church values of their Scriptures and civil affairs. Reading was the most significant of their subjects along with writing and spelling to comprehend the Scriptures and common laws. “You cannot know where your people are going if you don't know where your people have been.”
~ Forrest Carter Jefferson believed that public taxes or scholarships should pay for education so that anyone could attend school. Created a district system for a distribution of elementary schools, which emphasized reading, writing, arithmetic, and history. His plan helped secondary students in continue in their education. Dr. Benjamin Rush Rush believed in democracy and development of natural resources. His was an advocate for free education at all levels. His curriculum consisted of reading, writing, arithmetic, English, German, the arts, and the sciences. Not to mention good manners and principles as well. Noah Webster Friedrich Froebel Froebel developed kindergarten education for 3 to 4 year old children based on play and individual and group activities. These activities consisted of songs, stories, colorful materials, and games. His methods contributed to early childhood education and progressive schooling. Johann Herbart Herbart believed that moral development should be attained through education. He laid out five foundations: inner freedom, perfection, benevolence, justice, and retribution. Johann also included knowledge and ethical interests into curriculum as well as correlation between the subjects.
His methods contributed to
educating teachers and
curriculum planning. Herbert Spencer Common Schools These schools focused on elementary education with progressive views and emphasis on the three R's. The common one-room schoolhouses educated all students on citizenship and many different subjects. The schools also housed meetings and community events. Elementary Schools Monitorial Schools The schools emphasized the three R's, citizenship, systematic instruction, and encouraged mass education. Teachers taught the lesson to monitors who then led small groups of students in the lessons. Each group worked at their own pace while
the teacher worked
with a small group
as well. Academies These schools offered mostly college preparatory classes with practical courses as well. Academies started with offering around 50 subjects and grew to 72 subjects about a decade later. In the late 1800's these schools transitioned to public high schools, although some
remain in the modern day. Secondary Schools Elementary schools funded by taxpayers helped to create more interest in secondary schools. Enrollment and graduation rates were low in the 1800's, however it steadily increased in the 1900's High Schools Once public high schools were allowed to be funded by taxpayers, they began to replace academies. With students of all classes in attendance the comprehensive ideals of curriculum for all students was developed. This consisted of vocational subjects as well as
college preparatory material. Committee of Ten An influential committee focused on high school curriculum in the subjects of Latin, Greek, English, modern languages, mathematics, physical sciences, biological sciences, and social sciences. The curriculum was intended for college bound students as they downsized the arts and vocational courses. Committee on College
Entrance Requirements Harris and Eliot Abraham Flexner Flexner emphasized that education must change with the evolving society. Curriculum should contain science, industry, civics, aesthetics, and modern language. His ideals were focused on the concept of utility and modern subjects relative to political and social views. John Dewey Dewey focused on education and democracy in which he believed that social practices in school helped to shape democracy. His emphasis on scientific inquiry was followed with the concept that knowledge in any subject was significant. Charles Judd Judd focused on the ideas of scientism in education in regards to decision-making and problem solving. Using statistical inference he outlined several different paths for success including adult life and career education. Bobbitt and Charters They shared similar views on
curriculum to be and efficiency process influenced by business and industry. Objectives are specific operations. Curriculum based on developing students' abilities to be successful adults. Emphasis on practical activities for adult life. Involved the community through the curriculum. Differentiated activities for
the students. Activities were
sequenced by grade level. This commission published principles that focused on the whole child for all career paths through diverse studies in a democratic society. Students' needs, interests, and non-college career paths were the emphasis. William Kilpatrick Kilpatrick's views focused on student driven education with a social purpose. Project based learning with student input along with the teacher as a guide through projects was the emphasis. Classroom and community projects that asked students to search, compare and to think, why. Vocational Education Once federal funding for vocational schools was approved there was a large increase in enrollment in the early 1900's. The subject areas of agriculture, home economics, and the trades were of significance. As time passed these programs tended to be outdated and less popular as subject matter rapidly changes in vocational areas. Committee of Fifteen The emphasis of this committee was on teacher authority, discipline, traditional curriculum of core subjects, and less on vocational subjects. They compartmentalized the subjects, which became the norm for many years and beyond. Eight-Year Study A study performed on high
schools that showed the experimental/progressive group was comparable to the cognitive, social, and psychological measures. It also showed the significance of student achievement, social factors, teaching-learning processes, and instructional methods. Rugg and Caswell Ralph Tyler Tyler's views were a rational, logical, and systematic approach to curriculum design. Knowledge, skills, attitudes, and academic habits all contributed to the curriculum. He also believed that evaluations were needed to determine outcomes. The 26th Yearbook The committee behind the yearbook consisted of those with scientific and progressive views on curriculum. The ideals should focus on a variety of items from adult and social life to problem-solving and independent learning. The yearbook helped designers to advance curriculum making. Parochial Schools Located in the middle colonies, missionaries along with religious and ethnic groups created schools for their children. Subject matter consisted of reading, writing, and sermons. Latin Grammar Schools Founded in Boston, these schools catered to secondary level, upper-class males as preparation for college. Latin was the majority of the curriculum and subject matter related to medicine, law, teaching, ministry, business, and religion. Resembled European schools
of the Renaissance. Academies These schools were influenced by Benjamin Franklin to offer a practical curriculum for those not attending college. Subject matter contained English grammar, classics, composition, rhetoric, and public speaking. Students chose a foreign language based on their vocation of carpentry, engraving, printing, painting, farming, etc. Ethical studies were based on history
instead of religion. Old Textbooks/Readers The hornbook, Westminster Catechism, Old Testament, and Bible were the textbooks during this period. The "New England Primer" was the most used textbook in the colonies for many years. Its content consisted of religious and moral doctrines. The "New Guide to the English Tongue" consisted of grammar, spelling, and religion. hornbook National Period
1776-1850 The federal government committed to advancing education. Religious influence was fleeting due to the development of democracy, cultural nationalism, idea of religious freedom, and natural sciences. Thomas Jefferson Webster believed in independence from other countries and for the US to have its own "American English" language. His books on spelling and reading were significant to American education. Webster helped to create a US language, identity, and nationality. William McGuffey McGuffey created five textbooks named "Readers," that were popular during this time period. They focused on patriotism, heroism, hard work, diligence, and virtuous living with nationalistic tones. He also provided an initial process for a grading system. Johann Pestalozzi Pestalozzi believe that natural development should be the basis for elementary education. He developed two methods: general - emotional security and affection for children, and special - auditory and visual senses. Spencer based education on
Darwin's theories and created the "survival of the fittest" ideals. His curriculum was based on scientific and practical ideas for advancing human survival and progress. He created five purposes of education: sustaining life, jobs, child rearing, citizenship, and leisure time. Scientific reasoning
and discovering learning were
significant to his curriculum. Universal Education
1820-1900 As life expanded west people carried with them the importance of education for all citizens. These ideals were significant in creating democracy and economic growth. These schools were in a transition period from religious studies to manners and morals along with the basic subjects of reading, spelling, grammar, and arithmetic. As time passed new subjects were added such as geography, history, science, art, and biology. The Normal Fourth Reader 1878 The Normal Course in Reading Fourth Reader 1890 Stories for Kindergartens and Primary Schools 1891 Waste Not Want Not and Other Stories 1901 Tuskahoma Female Academy Faculty in the late 1800's Transitional Period
1893-1918 The majority of education was achieved at the elementary level, which varied with each school. There was a need to bring order and unity to the curriculum. This committee of college and university presidents influenced the requirements for post-secondary education. Curriculum requirements at the secondary schools were developed for students seeking admission to college. Harris emphasized core academic areas, the classics, and moral values through rigor in elementary education. He believed that all children follow the same curriculum, which discouraged vocational studies.
Eliot focused on higher education and the preparation needed to attend college. He believed that the four classes of society are different learners and that curriculum
should adapt to different learning
rates and subjects. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education Rugg believed the experienced teacher, admin, and specialists should plan curriculum together. The content included the social sciences. He also believed there should be a statement of objectives, sequences of experiences for success, engaging subjects, and statements of outcomes.
Caswell believed that teachers should use curriculum as a guide for lesson planning. Instructional activities should contain material relevant to student needs and interests. He also stressed curriculum based on experiences including social settings. John Goodlad Goodlad's views included teachers collaborating with researchers in developing and testing curriculum. The emphasis was on student growth and enlightenment while becoming positive service members of society. He also included active learning, critical thinking, student involvement in curriculum, and aligning content with standards and tests.