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Unit 10 MATERIALS Week 2

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Andrew Pattenden

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Unit 10 MATERIALS Week 2

Phase Diagrams
What are they?
These are chart that are used to show conditions at which thermodynamically distinct phases can occur at equilibrium
Atomic Structure
Structure of Metals
Phase Equilibrium Diagrams
PROPERTIES & APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Classification and structure of materials
QUESTIONS
Explain what a covalent bond is?
Explain what an ionic bond is?
Explain Metallic bonding
Explain 2 types of lattice structure
What is the connection?
We have around 20 Billion atoms from William Shakespeare in each of us.
Explain the grain structure and how it forms in metals
How do the crystals grow?
How does their size affect the material?
How can steel be hardened?
You can recognise the presence of the different phases because there is an obvious boundary between them - a boundary between the solid ice and the liquid water, for example, or the boundary between the two liquids
A phase diagram lets you work out exactly what phases are present at any given temperature and pressure. In the cases we'll be looking at on this page, the phases will simply be the solid, liquid or vapour (gas) states of a pure substance.
If you look at the diagram, you will see that there are three lines, three areas marked "solid", "liquid" and "vapour", and two special points marked "C" and "T"
Critical point -
Triple point -
The 3 Areas - Solid - Liquid - Gas
Eutectic
If you ever made frozen juice in the freezer you have probably observed some simple facts about melting and crystallization. A half-frozen juice consists of a mix of ice crystals and concentrated juice. Many mixtures of materials, when they solidify, crystallize into two distinct materials. As they solidify, first one component forms, then the other. A system of this sort is called a simple eutectic
Ratio of components that has the lowest freezing point
Solid solution
Intermetallic
Aims
Understand, explain and describe
Atomic structure and electron valences
Compounds, molecules and mixtures
Atomic structure and structure of metals
Bonding mechanisms
Structure of materials
How is this possible?
What are atoms?
If everything is made of atoms, what are atoms made from?
Protons
Electrically charged
+ charge
1.67 x 10
-27
Kg
Neutron
Has no charge
Neutral
Same weight as a proton
Electron
Holds a negative charge
Weighs even less than a proton or neutron
9.1 x 10 Kg
-31
Atoms hold a neutral charge
How does this happen?
So what is an ion?
Electro+
Electro-
So how do materials bond?
IN groups discuss how atoms can bond together
You have 10 minutes
Then present your thoughts to the group
What happens if you remove 1 proton from an atom?
On the board draw.......
Silicon
Carbon
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Electron Shells
Atoms can hold a number of electrons in each shell
Atoms like to have full shells
They can hold......
2,8,18,32 etc.
2n
2
= Electron capacity
3 Types of bonds
What is an ion?
What is a molecule, compound and mixture?
Solids classified by regularity or arranged atoms
This forms a crystal structure in metals
Some properties of crystalline solids depends on the structure of the material
Face Centered Cubic
FCC
Materials such as Copper, Gold and Aluminum
Enables structure to roll over each other
Body Centered Cubic
BCC
Materials such as Chromium, Tungsten and Iron
Tighter packed atoms
Hexagonal Close packed
Materials such as Titanium, Cobalt and Zinc
Any Questions?
Full transcript