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Literacy Environments

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by

Jen Solomon

on 12 February 2016

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Transcript of Literacy Environments

Effective teachers formally and informally asess their students in order to get to know them academically and personally. Interviews and interest surveys can be used to assess noncognitive characteristics, such as interests and motivation (Afflerbach, 2012). Various cognitive assessments can be used to assess a student's literacy skills. Understanding each student's interests, motivations, and academic abilities enables teachers to design instruction and activities to best meet student needs (Laureate Education, Inc., 2014c).
Emergent Literacy Learner

Getting to Know Literacy Learners
Emergent Literacy Learner Lesson: Identifying Complete Sentences
Beginning Literacy Learner Lesson: Constructing a Retell
Research-based strategies implemented throughout this lesson:
Nonlinguistic Representation:
Retell glove with labeled fingers makes abstract concept of a retell concrete.
Thumb=setting, Pointer=character, Middle=problem, Ring=Events, Pinky=solution
Model:
five finger retell strategy using glove
complete retell graphic organizer and compose written retell
Picture Walk
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Student predicts story events; sets purpose for reading
Read Aloud:
Model fluency by reading with appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression (K12 Reader, n.d.)
Voice Pointing
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Point to words as you read aloud to reinforce mapping aspects of print
Graphic Organizer/Story Web
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Retell graphic organizer helps student organize her thoughts prior to completing a written retell (Rog, 2007).

Assessments implemented throughout this lesson:
Observations:
Observing student using retell glove and graphic organizer assesses her ability to identify components of a complete retell.
Questioning:
Open-ended questions related to five story elements assess student's comprehension.
Rubric:
Assess student's ability to compose a written retell.

Selecting Texts
Noncognitive assessments informed me my literacy learners are both interested in books about animals. Therefore, I selected texts about ducks.
Jen Solomon
Walden University
READ 6706
Literacy Environments
Reflection
References
Afflerbach, P. (2012). Assessing "the other": Important noncognitive aspects of reading. In,
Understanding and using reading assessment: K-12
(2nd ed.) (pp. 171-189). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Blomberg, G. (2011). The power of informal talk.
Reading Teacher, 64
(6), 460.

Cambria, J., & Guthrie, J. (2010). Motivating and engaging students in reading issues and practices. Retrieved from http://literacyconnects.org/img/2013/03/Motivating-and-engaging-students-in-reading-Cambria-Guthrie.pdf

DeRubertis, B. (19970.
Lucky duck
. Retrieved from https://www.getepic.com/app/search

Elish-Piper, L., Johns, J. L., & Lenski, S. D. (2006). Teaching reading Pre-K-3 (3rd ed.). Dubuque,IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Hills, T. (2006).
Duck & goose
. New York, NY: Schwartz & Wade Books.

K12 Reader. (n.d.). Five essential components of reading. Retrieved from http://www.k12reader.com/the-five-essential-components-of-reading/

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2014a).
Analyzing and selecting texts
[Video webcast]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_13726379_1&content_id=_31956846_1

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2014b).
Developmental word knowledge
[Video webcast]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_13726379_1&content_id=_31956823_1

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2014c).
Getting to know your students
[Video webcast]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_13726379_1&content_id=_31956806_1

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2014d).
The beginning reader
[Video webcast]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_13726379_1&content_id=_31956823_1

McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990).
Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers.
Retrieved from http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur1931/content/Reading_Attitudes_McKenna_Kear_1990.pdf

Mariotti, A. P. (n.d.). Using interest inventories with struggling and unmotivated readers. Retrieved from http://cw.routlege.com/textbooks/9780415802093/newsupdates/interest-inventories.pdf

Reading Horizons. (2014). Teaching Reading. Retrieved from http://www.readinghorizons,com/readingstrategies/teaching

Reutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R. B., Jr. (2016). Strategies for reading assessment and instruction: Helping every child succeed (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Rog, L. J. (2007).
Marvelous minilessons for teaching beginning writing, K-3
. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Sexton, C. A. (2008).
Ducklings: Watch animals grow
. Minneapolis, MN: Bellwether Media.

Beginning Literacy Learner
Interviews about Reading (Emergent Reader: PreK-K)
(Elish-Piper, Johns, & Lenski, 2006) informed me:
student has a positive self-concept
student loves read alouds about animals
Knowing about this student's interests will help me select texts she will want to read (Mariotti, n.d.). Providing books based on her interests will increase her motivation to participate in independent reading. As she experiences success with these texts, her self-concept will continue to grow (Cambria & Guthrie, 2010).

The Metalinguistic Interview
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016) informed me:
student can identify the cover and back cover of a book, along with individual letters and words
student struggles to identify complete sentences and track orally read print
These results will help me plan lessons to address her weakness related to the mapping aspects of print. I believe additional assessments, such as the Mow Motorcycle Task, would help me better understand the cause for this weakness (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016).

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL)
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016) informed me:
student is comfortable communicating with peers and adults
student does not always include the details necessary to express herself clearly.
In order to grow this student's oral language skills, I would like to hold informal conversations with her. (Blomberg, 2011). Through these conversations, I would gain insights into her personal life, enabling me to help her make text-to-self connections. Conversations would also expose her to developmentally appropriate vocabulary and increase her ability to support her ideas with details.

Elementary Reading Attitude Survey
(McKenna & Kear, 1990) informed me:
student loves both recreational and academic reading
student enjoys informational texts and likes to answer text-related questions
student does not enjoy reading over the summer; she would rather play with her younger brother
In order to motivate this student to read throughout the summer, I would provide this student with informational texts to share with her brother. Providing her with informational texts will motivate her to read because she loves learning new facts. Involving her brother in her reading will motivate her to read when school is not in session.

The Early Names Test
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016) informed me:
student can decode consonant blends and long vowel words
student struggles with short vowel sounds, especially the short u sound.
This student would benefit from instruction related to the consonant-vowel-consonant word pattern; therefore, I believe she would benefit from a Word Detectives activity (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016). Stretching out these words would help her hear and identify each sound.

Story Retelling Evaluation Guide: A Listening Comprehension Assessment
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016) informed me:
student can construct a retell including characters, events and the solution to the problem
student does not include setting or problem in retells
This assessment gave me insight into this student's listening comprehension. I would like the opportunity to assess her reading comprehension. I would like to listen to her read an appropriately leveled text and provide an oral retell. I would use the Story Retelling Evaluation Guide again to record each element of her retell. This would allow me to compare her listening and reading comprehensions.

The Literacy Matrix helps teachers ensure their students are exposed to a balanced literacy curriculum (Laureate Education, 2014a). Teachers must determine whether texts are narrative or informational and linguistic, text based, or semiotic, picture based. Ensuring texts from each quadrant of the matrix are incorporated in instruction helps students meet the expectations of the Common Core State Standards. A text's dimensions of difficulty should also be taken into account. One dimension of difficulty is readability, which relates to concept density, length of sentences, and number of syllabes per word. Other difficuluties include text length, text structure, size of print, and visual supports. Teachers must also provide students with texts based on their individual interests (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016). Interest-based texts motivate and engage students in their reading.
Linguistic
Semiotic
Narrative
Informational
Duck and Goose
(Hills, 2006):
Narrative; between linguistic and semiotic
Emergent Literacy Learner:
A read aloud of this text can be used to model how to track print. The student can demonstrate her comprehension by answering text questions.
Beginning Literacy Learner:
After reading or listening to this text read aloud, this student can provide a retell of the important story events. A graphic organizer will help her organize her thoughts.
Lucky Duck
(DeRubertis, 1997):
Narrative; between linguistic and semiotic
Emergent Literacy Learner
This student can listen as this digital text is read aloud. During the read aloud, she will hear important elements of fluency, such as speed, accuracy, and expression (K12 Reader, n.d.).
Beginning Literacy Learner
While reading this text, this student will focus on decoding consonant-vowel-consonant words, especially those containing the short u sound.
Ducklings: Watch Animals Grow
(Sexton, 2008):
Informational; linguistic
Emergent Literacy Learner
Short, simple sentences written in bold print will allow this student to focus on tracking words as they are read aloud.
Beginning Literacy Learner
Providing this student with an interest-based text will motivate her to read with her brother.
Research-based strategies implemented throughout this lesson:
KWL Chart:

K:
activate student's prior knowledge about ducks
W:
set purpose for reading by determining what student wants to learn
L:
student recalls important facts
Picture Walk
(Retuzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Student predicts what she will learn from the text.
Read Aloud:
Model fluent reading: appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression (K12 Reader, n.d.).
Think Aloud:
Think aloud the process of identifying sentences based on the initial capital letter and ending punctuation.
Voice Pointing
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Smoothly run finger under orally-read sentences.
Model:
Demonstrate how to draw a picture and write a sentence to illustrate learning.

Assessments implemented throughout this lesson:
KWL Chart:
Assess student's background knowledge to determine how much scaffolding she will need to comprehend the text.
Tally Chart:
Tally student's ability to correctly identify sentences within the text-take note of her errors.
Questioning:
Open-ended questions assess student's text comprehension.
Informational Text Oral Retelling Coding Form
(Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
:
Assess student's text comprehension.
Rubric:
Assess student's illustration and ability to write a developmentally-appropriate sentence.
Effective literacy educators use data to guide their instruction. Cognitive assessments give teachers insight into their students' academic skills, while noncognitive assessments provide information related to students' interest, motivation, and attitude (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016; Afllerbach,2012). This information helps teachers select appropriate texts for their students. Analyzing texts using the literacy matrix ensures students are exposed to a balanced selection of narrative and informational texts (Laureate Education, Inc., 2014a).


Completing this project taught me the importance of implementing research-based strategies (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016). Both emergent and beginning literacy learners benefit from:
Read alouds:
Expose students to fluent reading, demonstrate characteristics of good readers, develop language
Model/Think aloud:
Make learning visible
Activating schema:
Set purpose for learning
Text-based questions:
Engage students, assess comprehension
While the same strategies are effective with both developmental groups, the amount of guided practice each group requires is different. Emergent literacy learners require explicit instruction and teacher guidance when practicing literacy skills. Beginning literacy learners benefit from guided and independent practice.


Although emergent and beginning literacy learners are learning different skills, they both require instruction related to the "five pillars" of literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (Reading Horizons, 2014).
Emergent Literacy Learners Beginning Literacy Learners
Concept and alphabet sorts Short vowel word sorts
Letter names/sounds Segment and blend words
Rhymes Sight word recognition
Scribbling Short sentences with sound spelling
(Laureate Education, Inc., 2014b; Laureate Education, Inc., 2014d)




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