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Transcript of Biology Project
3. 4. The animal's scientific name Porifera means "pore bearer" in Latin. 5. Radial symmetry ~ regular arrangement of body parts around a central axis. 6. Reproduction can be asexual or sexual. Asexual forms include fragmentation, budding, and gemmules. Since most sponges are hermaphroditic, sexual reproduction is carried out by releasing sperm into the current. Fertilization is internal and occurs when sponges filter the sperm from the current. 7. Sponges secrete poisons as their main weapon of defense. 8. One special feature about the animal is that all sponges share an amazing physical feature that no other animals have: the cells that make up sponges’ bodies can move around freely and change forms, allowing sponges to constantly reshape their bodies. 9. Its habitat is that 99% of all sponges live in marine water, but some sponges made of spongin fiber live in freshwater. Sponges can be attached to surfaces anywhere as deep as 8km in the ocean on the bottom of the ocean floor. There are a higher number of sponge individuals and sponge species in the tropics of all regions because the water is warmer. 10. This animal is harmful to humans because Neofibularia nolitangere / the "touch-me-not" sponge can cause sever skin rash/burn/numbness if it comes in contact with your bare hands Format: Werner E. G. Muller. (2003). Sponges (Porifera), Volume 37. Springer. Copyright. Website or Webpage Format: http://books.google.com/books?id=QMOaHmkYd5oC&pg=PA60&dq=porifera+phylum&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XBOcUfwcktj1BMT3gYAI&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=porifera%20phylum&f=false http://people.eku.edu/schusterg/bio542/porifera.htm http://www.ebiomedia.com/prod/BOsponges.html http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3431 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neofibularia_nolitangere 10. Today, the sponges you use at home are synthetic and not made from living sponges. In the past, natural sponges were used for padding and packing, to paint with and to bathe with. Natural sponges are still used today as luxury bath items. These are made from sponges that only produce spongin skeletons and do not have lots of sharp, poky spicules like most other sponges: most commercial bath sponges are made from Spongia officinalis of the Family Spongiidae that is found in the Mediterranean Sea. Nowadays, living sponges have become important as potential sources of new medicines. The toxins and foul-tasting substances that sponges have developed to defend themselves are being studied for medical applications such as new antibiotics. 2. Sponges http://www.wildsingapore.com/wildfacts/porifera/porifera.htm Harmful Animal: Jellyfish 1. Phylum: Cnideria (Coelenterata) 3. 2. Stinging Celled 4. The scientific name of a jellyfish is Medusozoa. They are free-swimming fish which are classified in the phylum Cnidaria. 5. radially symmetry 6. Reproduction in polyps is by asexual budding or sexual formation of gametes. Cnidarian individuals may be monoecious or dioecious. The result of sexual reproduction is a planula larva, which is ciliated and free-swimming. 7. Nematocysts define cnidarians. These tiny organelles, likened by Hickman to cocked guns, are both highly efficient devices for capturing prey and extremely effective deterrents to predators. Each contains a coiled, tubular thread, which may bear barbs and which is often poisoned. A nematocyst discharges when a prey species or predator comes into contact with it, driving its threads with barb and poison into the flesh of the victim by means of a rapid increase in hydrostatic pressure. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cnidaria/ 8. Cnidarians have their own unique features, and are very successful when viewed in terms of their diversity and abundance. 9. Aquatic and mostly found in shallow coastal waters, though some are found in freshwater locations. http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=119&detID=2813 10. Hundreds or thousands of nematocysts may line the tentacles or surface of the cnidarian. They are capable even of penetrating human skin, sometimes producing a painful wound or in extreme cases, death. Beneficial Animal: Corals 1. Phylum: Cnidaria (Coelenterata) 2. Stinging Celled 3. 4. The scientific name is Corallium rubrum. 5. Radially symmetry http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/cnidaria.html 6. Reproduce asexually and sexually. 7. Cnidocyte cells containing nematocysts present in all and employed extensively for food capture and defense. 8. One special feature will it's appearence. 9. Aquatic and mostly found in shallow coastal waters, though some are found in freshwater locations. 10. Coral reefs provide jobs for millions of people in fishing, tourism and other industries in more than 100 countries. Harmful Animal: Flukes 1. Phylum: Platyhelminthes 2. Flatworms 3. 4. Trematoda 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Asexual reproduction occurs through fragmentation or fission. Since the flat worms are hermaphrodites, sexual reproduction occurs through the exchange of sperm. 7. In the case of The nematocysts when not digested, but are transported from the gut to the epidermis, where they are then recycled for the organisms self defence. Within the outer epidermis itself are numerous rod shaped bodies called rhabdites. These are thought to be used, either in the organisms defensive mechanisms, or to secrete a slimy coat over the animal. 8. Their most distinctive external feature is the presence of two suckers. 9. They occur worldwide and range in size from about 5 millimetres (0.2 inch) to several centimetres; most do not exceed 100 millimetres (4 inches) in length. 10. Can bring disease into the human body. http://pioneerunion.ca.schoolwebpages.com/education/components/scrapbook/default.php?sectiondetailid=2772&linkid=nav-menu-container-4-13097 http://quizlet.com/20742976/phylum-platyhelminthes-flash-cards/ Beneficial Animal: Planarian 1. Phylum: Platyhelminthes 2. Flatworms 3. 4. Planariidae (Flatworms) is its scientific name. 5. Bilateral symmetry http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_scientific_name_for_flatworms#page3 6. Sexual Reproduction = Hermaphrodites = has both male and female reproductive organs
Asexual Reproduction by fission = organism spits in two 7. They serve as defense mechanisms and are discharged when disturbed, or they are discharged and disintegrate to form a mucous covering around the animal. 8. Its unique feature is that it have flattened shapes so oxygen and nutrients can pass through their bodies by diffusion. 9. Some animals are also free living and parasitic flatworms, species are found in both freshwater and marine environments. 10. Are beneficial, because they are used for insect control but can also provide foods for other insects. Although they are useful for insect control, flatworms are incredibly dangerous to humans and other organisms, since they can cause infections in the tissues. 1. Phylum: Nematoda 2. Roundworms 3. Beneficial Animal: Hookworms 4. Ancylostoma Duodenale 5. bilateral 6. Complex life cycles male and female worm. 7. Most nematodes have drought-resistant stages, usually as juveniles, in which the roundworm becomes inactive. If a steady supply of food and oxygen becomes unavailable, the quickest defence is to dry up until conditions improve. These drought-resistant stages are the primary means of dispersal for nematodes. 8. Nematoda have some special features such as: long and narrow body, nervous system with pharyngeal (throat) nerve ring and have no blood in their body. 9. Its habitat is parasitic,aquatic,and terrestrial(complexcycle). 10. There are many beneficial effects of nematodes: controlling soil nutrient cycling and controlling harmful species. http://www.protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/25467.html Harmful Animal: Pinworm 1. Phylum: Nematoda 2. Roundworms 3. 4. Enterobius 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Complexlife cycles male and female worms. 7. Becomes inactive and unavailable, the quickest defence is to dry up until conditions improve. 8. The lateral "spines" ( length of the worm) are identifying features of the pinworm is what makes it special. 9. Pinworms are tiny parasites that infect the intestinal tracts of millions of people each year, particularly children. 10. Pinworm infection is caused by a very small (1 cm) worm with the scientific name of Enterobius vermicularis. This infection often affects whole groups and not just individuals. The most obvious clue that a person is suffering from the condition is an itchy anus or anal opening. This condition is not rare. The condition itself may not kill, but once other conditions and complications set in because of the sheer increase in number of pinworms, an infected person may seriously get sick and die. Particularly harmful is the pinworms' tendency to travel to the different parts of the body. Harmful Animal: Leech 1. Phylum: Annelida 2. Segmented worms 3. 4. Hirudinea is its scientific name. Moll
a5. Radial Moll
asymmetryPhylum: MolluskaPhylum: Molluska 6. Male+female external fertilization bilateral larva settles+devs into radial adult form 7. Some leeches use camouflage;most of them, when they feel threatened, they will curl up. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Leech%27s_defense_mechanism 8. One special feature is that leeches are blood suckers. 9. Mostly marine is there habitat. 10. Leeches have been found to carry parasites, yet the life stage of the parasite while in the digestive tract cannot live in humans, therefore posing no threat. If the wound is cleaned, there is little risk of infection (as with any other small wound). The most dangerous practice seems to be scratching leech wounds with the fingernails, and hence acquiring other infections. People living in leech infested areas get some bites as a matter of course. The bites are painless and generally harmless. Beneficial Animal: Earthworms 1. Phylum: Annelida 2. Segmented worms 3. 4. Lumbricina 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Male + female external fertilization bilateral larva settles + devs into radial adult form 7. Earthworms defend themselves in a variety of ways. Those living in tunnels escape danger by quickly withdrawing into their burrows. 8. Its body is covered with mucus which keeps it lubricated. 9. Lives in the soil which is dark, cool and slightly damp. It can be under the rocks, fallen logs, dead leaves as long as it is dark and damp. Earthworm don’t like sunlight. 10. Earthworms help maintain fertile soil. An earthworm literally eats its way through soil and decaying vegetation. As it moves about, the soil is turned, aerated, and enriched by nitrogenous wastes. http://www.earthwormcompostguide.com/earthworm-habitat/ Harmful Animal: Octopus 1. Phylum: Molluska 2. Mollusks 3. 4. Octopoda/ Vulgaris 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Male and female internal fertilization bivalve: sperm in incurrent siphom of female; dev outside cephalopod: squid die after octopus female guards cave 7. An octopus’s main defense is to hide; secondary defenses are the use of ink sacs, camouflage, autotomising limbs, and, most common, a fast escape. http://justinlp6.weebly.com/defenses.html 8. Special Features: Eight tentacles with suckers and ink sack. 9. Mostly marine 10. Like a snake it is deadly because of the venom that it produces. The venom will kill a person. http://a-z-animals.com/animals/octopus/ http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00686/octopus.htm Beneficial Animal: Clams 1. Phylum: Molluska 2. Mollusks 3. 4. Meretrix is the scientific name of clams. 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Females can release from 1 million to as many as 24 million eggs at one time, and spawning may continue for several months, depending on the water temperature and the availability of food. A single female may release up to 60 million eggs in a season, of which only a small number will become fertilized and grow to become adult clams. Once fertilization takes place, the young clam goes through a larval stage where it is carried by waves and currents. Eventually it develops a shell and sinks to the bottom. Using its muscular foot, it can then move about the bottom to some degree. 7. The main defenses that adult clams have against predators are refuge in burial and sturdy shells. Neither defense is perfect, but both effectively increase the finding and handling costs to predators. Additionally, some clams are able to sequester toxins from their phytoplankton food and other species employ various escape behaviours. 8. One special feature is that clams can form pearls. http://www.asnailsodyssey.com/LEARNABOUT/CLAM/clamDefe.php 9. Clams live in saltwater,in a sand & mud & shelly bottom areas of the creeks and rivers, the small clams get caught in the shells and they dig themselves below the surface by using their foot and the natural rise and fall of the tides, you can also find some clams around the beaches. There is also a variety of freshwater clams, which mostly lay on the bottom surface. http://www.blurtit.com/q919153.html 10. Most clams are harmless in fact some can't even close there mouths completely and they help us by finding pearls. Harmful Animal: Spider 1. Phylum: Arthropoda 2. Jointed feet 3. 4. Chilopoda 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. The male centipede will lay a sperm packet on the ground and then tap the females back legs with his antennas to get her to the sack. This may take hours before the female responds, but the female will eventually back up and take the sack into her reproductive organs. 7. When threatened, centipedes protect themselves by running away or biting. Others whip their bodies about or spread their hind legs wide in a threatening manner. 8. Centipedes have a pair of legs on each segment. http://answers.ask.com/Science/Biology/how_do_centipedes_reproduce 9. The centipede is usually found on land in moist habitats usually under rocks, leaf litter, logs and occasionally in burrows in the ground or rotting wood. The centipede favours damp environments and so is rarely found in the hot and dry desert regions. 10. All species of centipede can be dangerous to humans. They all posses venom and can bite you. Beneficial Animal: Lobster 1. Phylum: Arthropoda 2. Jointed feet 3. 4. Homarus americanus 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Lobsters like most multi-cell animals reproduce sexually. A female lobster searches for a mate when they are about to molt. The male transfers the sperm to her and the eggs are fertilized internally. She then carries the eggs on her swimmeretes until they hatch. 7. Losters can uses their claws to feed and for defense. They usually bury themselves underground, but they also use their claws as a warning sign and to attack. http://science.jrank.org/pages/3982/Lobsters-Lobster-reproduction.html 8. Its special feature is that lobsters have ten walking legs and the front two are modified into claws which are huge. 9. Mostly marine 10. Lobsters are actually good for the human body. Lobsters are full of nutrition and vitamins that are good for human health and help boost the immune and nervous systems. Lobsters also contain less fat than other foods such as beef or pork, which means it does not contribute weight gain or clogged arteries. Harmful Animal: Sea urchin 1. Phylum: Echinodermata 2. Spiny skinned 3. 4. Echinoidea 5. Radial symmetry 6. Sea urchins are sexually reproducing organisms. First millions of eggs are released by the females and they unite and fuse with the sperms released by the males. The unification of the jelly-coated egg and the tiny sperm usually occurs outside the female’s body; however in some rare cases the fertilization will take place within the female’s body. Once the fertilization of the gametes occurs, a larva is formed. This larva is also known as a pluteus. The sex of the larva is impossible to distinguish until it itself begins to release either eggs or sperms during its adulthood. http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4881 7. Sea urchin injuries are caused by the animal trying to defend itself. A sea urchin’s spines are its first line of defense. The length and sharpness of an urchin’s spines vary from species to species. 8. Its spikes are one special feature. 9. Sea urchins can be found all over the world in all oceans, warm or cold water. They live in a variety of environments in many different parts of the world. Some common places they live are in rock pools and mud, on wave-exposed rocks, on coral reefs in kelp forests and in sea grass beds. Sea urchins also commonly lodge themselves half way into the surface of sand, mud or holes. 10. A sea urchin’s spines can inject painful venom. A less common but much more dangerous urchin is the flower urchin. Instead of long spines it appears to be covered with numerous flowers which are in fact little venomous pincers capable of causing paralysis and even death. It has killed several people in Japan. Beneficial Animal: Sea cucumber 1. Phylum: Echinodermata 2. Spiny skinned 3. 4. Holothuroidea 5. Radial symmetry 6. Sea cucumbers can reproduce either asexually or sexually. In sexual reproduction, the more common way to reproduce, animals release their sperm and eggs into the water and fertilization occurs. 7. As a defense mechanism some sea cucumbers can self-eviscerate parts of their own body. They do this by violently contracting their muscles together and secreting some of their organs out of their anus. Sea cucumbers tend to do this so their predators think that they are dead. 8. One very important feature of the sea cucumber is the calcareous ring that encircles the throat. 9. Sea cucumbers are common in warm waters of the Indian ocean and the Southwest Pacific Ocean. They live on or near the ocean floor and some might be partially buried under the floor. 10. Sea cucumbers are not actually cucumbers, but are marine animals, related to starfish and sea urchins. They are known to have anti-aging agents and are strong anti-oxidants. In Chinese diet therapy culture sea cucumber is regarded to be especially beneficial for the kidneys as it nourishes them. http://www.sciencefriday.com/blogs/05/07/2012/the-surprising-sea-cucumber.html?audience=1&series=16 Harmful Animals: Snakes 1. Phylum: Chordata 2. Vertebrates 3. 4. Serpentes 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. They mate by a male and a female sort of twist each others bodies and then the female lays eggs. Snakes can be born in eggs or have live young. Although a wide range of reproductive modes are used by snakes, all snakes employ internal fertilization. 7. The snake will start to rattle its tail to show annoyance.Or the snake will flicker its tongue in and out in a threatening way.Another method often used is hissing. 8. Its skin pattern is one special feature. 9. Snakes are able to live in many different environments; warm places, creeks, rainforests or forests. 10. Some snakes are poisonous to humans such as the rattle snake and the coral snake. Beneficial Animal: Fishes 1. Phylum: Chordata 2. Vertebrates 3. 4. Ichthyoid 5. Bilateral symmetry 6. Reproduction in fishes varies widely from species to species. In every case, the fish must use an amount of metabolic energy required to reproduce in the most efficient way possible. 7. The ocean can be a dangerous place for a small fish. Fortunately, nature has bestowed a number of defense mechanisms on the ocean’s fish, helping them to escape predators. From camouflage to poisons to flying, fish have a number of ways to find safety. 8. The coloration of it's scales. 9. Mostly marine 10. Fish have great impact on the lifestyles of humans. They provide food for millions of people annually. http://suite101.com/article/defense-mechanisms-of-ocean-fish-a141314