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History of Television

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Melia N

on 19 February 2016

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Transcript of History of Television

History of Television
Introduction of Television
-Television has become a part of today's culture and everybody's lives that it would be hard to imagine a time when TV wasn't as prominent as it is now.
-The fact that television has survived and evolved since its introduction shows how strong it has gotten.
Evolution of Television in More Current Years:
The Newlywed Game
airs its first episode featuring a gay couple.
The Newlywed Game
is a television show that tests each couple on how well they know each other.
MTV dedicated an entire performance to Michael Jackson at the VMA’s where Janet Jackson and several dancers dance and sing to his songs. The performance included these songs: Thriller, Bad, Smooth Criminal, and Scream.
In the same VMA year, Taylor Swift won “Best Female Video” for her song “You Belong With Me.” During her speech, Kanye West expressed his feeling that Beyoncé should have won the award.
Television's Early Beginnings (Cont.)
Television's Early Beginnings
-Mechanical Televisions:
The basis of mechanical TVs started back in 1843 with Alexander Bain.
The Nipkow disk (a spinning disk) was created by Paul Nipkow and it goes all the way back to 1884.
Electronic Televisons
-Used the Cathode-Ray Tube (CDR) to produce images.
The Vietnam War
-During the Vietnam war, Walter Cronkite (CBS news), said the United States could not win the war, and it would only end up being a stalemate. Cronkite’s point made a big impact on the television audience, because when he said it in an evening news broadcast he was giving his opinion, rather than a journalist’s normal objective way.
Ashton Carr, Mouhamadou Diallo, Denise McCrink, Melia Neira, Joshua Perez
Electronic Televisions (Cont.)
Color Televisions
Color Televisions (Cont.)
I Love Lucy
Entertainment Culture of the 1950s (Cont.)
-John Baird (England) and Charles Jenkins (US) built the first mechanical televisions.
-The mechanical television played a very large part in the discovery of the television scanning principle (known today as the “refresh rate”) even if it wasn’t a success for its quality pictures.
First photograph of a moving image from Baird's television
-First working prototype was shown in 1927, it used the CDR to display a dollar sign to the public.
-1929 – Vladimir Zworykin worked on improving the CDR and soon displayed the future model for all televisions that use the CDR.
-The first consumer models were made but they were never available to people until 1933.
World War II halted manufacturing and sales of the electronic televisions.
-War Production Board
-CBS and NBC began with the first practical application of experimental color field tests back in 1940 as well and they had worked! But...
-1953 - When color television was starting to get sold to consumers.
1954 - Tournament of Roses, the first color program on TV.
Most Viewed Events on Television
Sports and TV
Evolution of Television for More Current Years
How Did 9/11 Affect Television?
Evolution of Television for More Current Years
-Color television didn’t really kick off until 1965 when companies started showing their programs in color, they had taken a while to kick start it because of the high production costs.
-1970 – The first year that color televisions beat black and white televisions in terms of sales.
-1972 - All programs on TV were now shown in color.
The Impact on Television
TV & Culture
Domestic Culture in the 1950s
The Live Shock on Television
Evolution of Television for More Current Years
Evolution of Television for More Current Years
How Did 9/11 Affect Television?
-JFK was one of America’s most beloved presidents. Elected in 1960, he served for three years before his assassination on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas.
JFK's Assassination
-JFK’s assassination affected the whole world via television because it was the first national tragedy covered live and non-stop.
-During the coverage of JFK’s assassination, a lot of people did not like what they saw because they were not used to seeing unedited news.
-Dan Rather, a veteran newsman, said “The Kennedy assassination was the day that television became the new national hearth around which people gathered when there were important events.”
Television's Coming of Age
The Vietnam War
-1950 - Before the start of the Vietnam war, only 9% of American homes owned a television.
-1966 - In the middle of this nearly 20 year war, there was a TV in 93% of Americans homes.
-Television allowed Americans to “be in the war,” by having access to it nearly all the time, and so TV became the most popular and trusted source of news for Americans.

-1997 - The First DVD Player (Digital Versatile Disc) was released for sale in the United States: The Toshiba SD 3000.
-2003 - DVD’s became much more popular than VHS Tapes. 27.7 million DVD players were purchased in the U.S, as apposed to the 27.3 million VHS Tapes sold.

-1999 - The first version of “Tivo” was released to the public. “Tivo” allowed people to record television shows (DVR: Digital Video Receiver) and pause live episodes.
Shows such as
Gilmore Girls
CSI: Crime Scene Investigation
were released. These series intrigued viewers.
Oxygen launched.
Gilmore Girls
CSI: Crime Scene Investigation
Oxygen - TV Channel
-2001 - After 9/11 occurred, the series,
The Sopranos
, removed the twin towers from their introductory video.
-2001 - After 9/11 occurred another scene from
was removed from the episode, “The One Where Rachel Tells Ross.” The scene involved Chandler joking about bombs at an airport. The cast and crew did not feel it was appropriate to advertise at this time.

-2002 - American reality television show,
American Idol
, first aired. Their second season had over 38 million views. This is fairly high for American television.
-2003 - The NFL cable network began.
aired its final episode.
-FCC - Federal Communications Commission manages any communication through radio stations, television and cellular industries. They are responsible for what is said through those mediums.
-In 2004, the FCC began taking a strict stance on what they will allow to be seen on television after Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake’s halftime performance at the super bowl.
-2006 - Many networks were not obeying to the FCC’s demand that all television networks be closed captioned for respect of those who have hearing disabilities. In 2006, the FCC sent a public notice to all television networks stating they must include subtitles in case of an emergency broadcast.
Evolution of Television in More Current Years
According to “Nielson,” a research firm in NYC, 88% of homes owned DVD players, and 38% had digital cable.
Above the Dallas Cowboys Stadium was placed the largest video board, averaged at 72 feet tall, and 160 feet wide. Made by Mitsubishi.
-2008 - Panasonic released their largest high definition plasma television: 152 inches wide, 11 feet tall. Averagely priced at half a million dollars.
Evolution of Television in More Current Years
Evolution of Television in More Current Years
-2011 - DirectTV offers 3D networking
-2013 - Samsung releases their largest high definition television set, averaging at 110 inches. It is sold in only European countries and is told to have “four times the picture resolution of standard HD.”
Evolution of Television in More Current Years
-2014 - According to “Nielsen,” there are 116.3 million homes in the United States with owned television sets.
-2016 - Time Warner Cable has the most United States subscribers at a count of 30 million.
-Before World War II (1939-1945), television was not a part of culture like it is today.
-During the Great Depression (1929-1939), television was developing.
-When television came into the U.S. Market from England only about 2000 Americans owned a TV.
-Post-war, the American domestic ideal (or culture) is that the man makes all the money and the wife is at home raising the children.
-In addition, in post-war there was a lot of leisure time.
-TV was the main medium for most families in America because of the free time they had.
-As a result, this meant more entertainment at home and a strong patriarch because families were building parasocial relationships with characters on TV.
I Love Lucy
Entertainment Culture of the 1950s
Domestic Culture in the 1950s
Political Culture
-A decade after WWII and the Great Depression, nearly 2/3s of Americans owned a television.
-Now with multicultural programs being aired, these distinctions help forge a national popular culture.
-Television changed politics in a major way.
-The first president to be aired on TV was Harry Truman.
-Early Political advisors understood the power of this medium.
-The reason why Eisenhower won the 34th president election, he generated short and powerful statements on air help his campaign.
-Big TV shows such as
The Donna Reed Show
Father Knows Best
in the 1950's reflected & reinforced the image of how domestic culture should be in America.
-A view of the perfect family life should look like:
The briefcase toting professional father who leaves for daily work and the nurturing housewife who raises their children.
-Early television was mostly live television.
-The most popular form of entertainment was known as variety shows. They are made up of acts, musicals, comedy sketches, and animals tricks, all centered with an engaging host.
The Ed Sullivan Show
had a great effect on American culture. It first aired June 20, 1948 and ends Sunday, June 6, 1971.
This show entertained with musical performances, such as the Beatles, Elvis Presley, the Beach Boys, the Jackson Five, the Rolling Stones, and many others.
-Television in the 1950s was dominated by the television show,
I Love Lucy
, a comedy situation sitcom that Americans loved.
-The show topped the ratings and broke new ground by adding her child, Ricky, which drew in 44 million more Americans to her show.
-The show follows Lucy Ricardo, a housewife in the 1950s in New York City. She attempts to break into the show business and defy her husband.
-The show was viewed by some to be degrading women because Ethel and Lucy are consumed by their material desires and are incompetent and their mistakes tend to be cleaned up by their more sensible husbands.
The Donna Reed Show
Father Knows Best
-However, it really empowered woman culturally to break out of the image of the housewife and to break the image that the husband was the only one earning money for the family.
-The value of woman was shown as Lucy tried to reach her career success in the show business.
The Jackson Five
Elvis Presley
The Beatles
-The exposure to the musical performances gave a voice to all these musicians who had a major influence on American culture.
-Variety shows really made TV a whole family event.
-The musicians on the shows had a major impact on society entertainment-wise.
-Norman Lear:
Introduced shows that were “socially relevant.”
All in The Family
Archie Bunker - The lovable bigot
Known for
Good Times
The Jeffersons
, &
Sanford and Son.
Socially Conscious Programming
-Walter Cronkite
CBS Evening News Anchor from 1962-1981.
Reported from battlefields of WWII.
Principle voice reporting over 3 decades of news to American public.
The Most Trusted Man in America
-Critical influence on public opinion.
-Traveled to Vietnam to report on aftermath of Tet Offensive.
-Upon return, he addressed the American public
-Gave his own unbiased opinion, veering away from typical norms of journalism.
Cronkite’s Role in Vietnam
-American media played a pivotal role in the public opinion and government management of the war.
TV cameras brought the “horrors of war” to people living rooms
Deaths of innocent civilians
The human cost of war
Regular exposure to ugly realities of battle turned the public against the war
Vietnam: The Television War
-Early in the war
The news glorified bravery & skill of “American boys in action.”
Their actions were necessary because they were fighting communism.
-As troop morale declined, reporting got more personal & emotional.
-Anti-war movement gained momentum.
Cronkite’s reports carried weight in the public & the White House.
Vietnam: The Television War (Cont.)
-Super Bowl
Cultural, political, social, & economic crossroads of America.

Superbowl commercials
-Sports & News
John Lennon’s assassination
Full transcript