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Transcript of Digital Camera
Rehman Pirani, Sierra Menzies, Sayyaf Ali,
Emily Parrish, Jose Mathews, & Stephanie Zheng
History of the Digital Camera
Canon PowerShot A590 iS
Q: How does microelectronics & nanotechnology play in that functionality?
What is the future form and function of this technology?
"a picture is worth
a thousand words"
Cost Over Time
How does this widget actually work?
December of 1975
Kodak engineer, Steven Sasson and his team developed the first device that was able to capture an image in black and white.
new Fairchild Semiconductor 100x100-pixel sensor was also produced
August of 1981
Sony released the Sony Mavica, the first electronic camera specially developed for commercial use.
simply a “video camera that took video freeze-frames”.
world’s first megapixel sensor
“able to construct 5x7 inch digital photo-quality prints and record up to 1.4 million pixels”
Photo CD system
“first worldwide standard for defining color in the digital environment of computers and computer peripherals"
first professional digital camera system or the DCS created for photojournalism
a Nikon F-3 camera that had the Kodak 1.3 megapixel sensor
Other Key Players
Sony, Casio, and Apple
February 17, 1994:
Apple launched its QuickTake 100 camera
March 28, 1995:
The Kodak DC40 camera was launched and Casio QV-11 camera with LCD monitor.
Sony Cyber-Shot Digital Still Camera came into the market
Kodak= Key Player
collaborated with Kinko’s and Microsoft
to create the digital image-making software for the consumer market.
partnered with IBM
to create an internet-based network image exchange.
Hewlett-Packard created the color inkjet printers to complement these digital cameras, allowing for the printing of the images captured on these cameras.
A: Transistors and Integrated Circuits!
Flash Memory Card
4GB SanDisk NAND Flash Memory Card front (left) and back (right)
"Memory" of widget is transistor-based semiconductor NAND flash volatile removable memory card
NAND flash cells connected in series - cannot be read and programmed independently of one another - must be done in sequence
Uses binary "1's" and "0's" to transmit, store, and retrieve information (pictures captured) processed on main IC board and sent through memory buffer chip to be stored
How do we selectively store and retrieve photographs we have taken with our digital cameras?
Canon PowerShot A590 iS main integrated circuit board front (left) and back (right)
Image processor chip exclusive to Canon Inc.
Application-specific IC that serves as main image processor and control unit chip in Canon digital cameras
Combines 3 discrete ICs common to all (and only) digital cameras:
1) Video Processing IC
2) Image Processing IC
3) Control Unit IC
Pieces of quartz crystal
Vibrate at specific and controlled frequencies, serving as consistent digital clock-like devices that tell the digital camera appropriate times to:
Read and erase memory and program sequences in series
Provide signal timing to camera and flash function
Store and retrieve memory on Memory Flash Card
Initiate communication between pieces on main IC board
Capture images based on click of user's finger
Video Processing Integrated Circuit
Photodiodes captured by lens when "taking a photo," detected by image sensor chip on gray-scale
Interprets gray-scale compilation from image sensor and displays in true-color quickly and efficiently
Reduces noise and sharpens image quality when combining millions of captured pixels into one cohesive image
Image Processing Integrated Circuit
Control Unit Integrated Circuit
Provides high-speed capturing of photodiodes as sequence of stream of images
Retrieves audio captured by camera's internal speaker
Combines audio and video captured in high-resolution to be sent to memory buffer and stored in Flash Memory Card
CCD Image Sensor Chip found in most (not in all modern) digital cameras - also key player unique to digital cameras
Directs operation of digital camera and activates other units internally
Commander of main IC board - ensures all communication and requests among ICs and components of board are received and acted upon
Driving engine and power force of all required image processing operations and communications for which a digital camera is solely used
The general public used point and shoot digital cameras. Professional cameras were too expensive, large, and complicated for easy day to day use.
The camera phone was introduced
Point and shoot cameras began shrinking in size, prioritizing sleekness and ease of carry
Camera phone technology improved making point and shoot digital cameras not worth the cost, and not worth carrying around
Image Sensors: CCD vs. CMOS
Comparison of the CCD and CMOS sensors
The CCD produces higher quality images
CCD sensors consume more energy
CCD sensors are relatively more expensive
However, CCD image sensors are the most common
How it works
Shutter opens to intake light
Light is absorbed and digitized within the image sensor
The Creation of an Image
Photosites made of photodiodes
Diode-crystal duo absorbs photons and emits electrons
Every photon is not registered (Quantum Efficiency)
Completed exposure runs through a D/A convertor
Signal is then amplified, re-digitized, and written into memory
How the mind is tricked
Light is sampled by three distinct means: spatial, tonal, and within time
breaks down the angular view of the camera
breaks down brightness into discrete steps
Discrete Steps in Tone
Surface of Image Sensor
Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR)
The Future (and Present) of the digital camera
DSLR technology becomes more and more affordable every year
These cameras prioritize functionality, adjustability, and quality of photos over sleekness and portability
"Digital photography has become an art, hobby, and necessity, allowing us to preserve memories that can, literally, last a lifetime."
Price versus Time
As sensor capacity of a camera increases, the price of the camera decreases.
The cost of these products will continue to drop when compared to the micro/ nanotechnology and processing power contained within these systems.
As larger sensors are used in digital cameras, the time between the introduction of cameras with a particular sensor size and the time when such cameras become obsolete
Sony Mavica 1981
Sony CyberShot 1996
Sony CyberShot 2014