**Research Questions and Rules - Presentation**

Sir Isaac Newton

Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorne, England. His father's name was also Isaac Newton and his mother is Hannah Newton. His father died three months before he was born.

Newton contributed mainly in math and science. He discovered many laws and theories. He also contributed to the theory of gravity, he came up with The

Universal Law of Gravitation

Henry Cavendish Contribution

Cavendish made a model called the Cavendish Torsion Balance. It's a model with lead spheres with two different masses that exert a gravitational force upon each other. This causes a rod to twists to a measurable amount. This model helped Cavendish determine the gravitational force of attraction between the masses.

The equivalence of the inertial and gravitational properties of mass play a very important role in the development of general relativity. It forms the basis of the entire theory. Einstein assumed that inertial and gravitational mass are the same. He looked at what would happen if they are equal, and that assumption directly leads to the equations forming the general theory of relativity.

The Schwarzschild Radius is a radius associated with every quantity of mass. It is a radius of a sphere in space, that if containing a corresponding sufficient amount of mass, the force of gravity from the contained mass would be so great that no known force or pressure could stop the mass from continuing to collapse in volume into a point of infinite density

Views of Gravity and Motion of Planets Before Newton

**Zach Shepherd**

Marche Zimicki

Marche Zimicki

Aristotle

Aristotle's view was that the Earth was at the center of the universe, in other words he believed in the Geocentric Model.

Galileo

Galileo believed that the Sun was at the center of the universe (Heliocentric). He observed Jupiter's moons and noticed that they orbited Jupiter. There for if Aristotle's view were correct, then these moons shouldn't exist.

Kepler

Kepler calculated that the center of the Sun and the center of a planet are equal intervals of time. Kepler's third law: The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit, provides evidence that it's correct. He also noticed that the closer the planet is to the sun, the faster the planet finishes a revolution.

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Gravity is the negative slope in the space-time fabric. The deeper the slope, the stronger the gravity, the shallower the slope (bending), the weaker the gravity. This is how gravity corresponds to the bending of the space-time fabric.

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A black hole is a region of space that is so incredibly dense that not even light can escape from the surface. Black holes don't have any greater gravitational reach than any other star of the same mass. Yes, they do exist

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Gravity can't really bend a ray of light because it always travels in a straight line. The space around the light curves which makes the light appear like it’s bending. Gravitational lensing is one of the predictions of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. A gravitational lens refers to a distribution of plates (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant source (a background galaxy) and an observer, that is capable of lensing, or ‘bending,’ the light from the source, as it travels towards the observer.

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It's called the general "theory" of relativity and not the general "hypotheses" of relativity because it has evidence backing it up and experiments to prove it's correct.

A hypothesis is a reasonable guess based on what you observe and can be tested. A theory is one or more hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. A law is a mathematical relationship that is consistently found to be true.

Albert Einstein had made three test of general relativity. One about the perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit, another about the deflection of light by the Sun, and the last about the gravitational redshift of light. .

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