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Agile / Scrum

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Guillaume Soyer

on 7 April 2016

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Transcript of Agile / Scrum

The Product Owner:

Represents the business and is the voice of the customer
Accountable for ensuring that the team delivers value (ROI)

Owns the Product Backlog
Writes customer-centric items (user stories)
Prioritizes user stories based on value to business
Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed
Accept or reject work

There should be only 1 Product Owner:
May also be a member of the development team
Ideally should NOT be the ScrumMaster
There is a conflict of interest.
PO: Looks after the needs of the business and all things that are valuable to the them.

SM: Looks after the needs of the team. Shield the team from external interferences.

Collaboration between the two roles is important but some degree of separation is required.

When the role is carried out by the same person the conflicting interests become magnified and one or both sides end up losing.
Responsible for delivering potentially shippable product increments at the end of each Sprint.

Ideal size 7 (+-2) Ideally with cross-functional skills.
If not fully cross functional then with large overlaps
SELF ORGANISING – As long as the above items are observed

Product backlog:
An ordered list of all requirements
Owned by the Product Owner
Ordered by the Product Owner based on the value to business, risks, dependencies, SLA
Items in the Product Backlog are written in story format
Estimated for value to business by the Product Owner: e.g. 100, 75, 50, 25, 10
Estimated for effort required by the Team: e.g. 1,2,3,5,8,13,21
Optional: Product Owner could order by the effort / value ratio
There are 2 main types of process control
Every piece of work is completely understood
We have well defined inputs: --> Consistent results
We know “all we need to know” at the start
There will be no new significant discoveries
There is a need for frequent inspection & adaptation
We have imperfectly defined inputs
We know least about the process at the start
We will learn a great deal along the path
Empirical Process (Agile)
Defined Process (Waterfall)
Agile controls the uncertainty through iterative & incremental processes
Start sooner
Improve Communication
Deliver on time

Feedback loops vs. Command-and-control
Popular Agile practices:

Scrum - By far the most popular

XP - Extreme Programming

Kanban - Japanese for “Signboard” –
Emphasis on continual delivery? (Limit WIP)

Lean - Derived from a system used by Toyota to optimize efficiency of work flow

RUP - Rational Unified Process - used by IBM therefore popular but not really agile!
Scrum Basics:
Roles:
Product Owner -
Scrum Master -
Team -

Artifacts:
Product Backlog
Release Plan
Sprint Backlog
Defects Backlog (Optional)
Burn down charts

Ceremonies
:

Time-boxed relative to the Sprint duration (2 - 4 weeks)

Sprint Planning -
4 Hours for 2 week Sprint
Daily Scrum (Stand ups) -
15 Minutes always
Sprint Review -
2 Hours for 2 week Sprint
Sprint Retrospective -
1.5 Hours for 2 week Sprint
Product Backlog Grooming -
5 to 10% of the Team's time + PO + SM
Typically 2 - 4 hours every 2 weeks

Release Planning - Duration depends on release cycle
Releases cycles: Ideally every 3 to 6 months. No more than 12 months
Release planning every 3 months: 4 Hours every 6 months 8 Hours
The Product Owner (PO):


Accountable for ensuring that the team delivers value
(ROI)

Drives product success:
Up-to-date knowledge of the customer needs

Creates and communicates product vision
Clear goals, motivates quality work

Owns the Product Backlog
Creates and maintains the Product Backlog as new information emerges
Writes customer-centric items (user stories)
... More on this later
Prioritizes user stories based on value to business
... More on this later
Adjust features and priorities at iterations, as needed

Accept or reject work

Participates in Sprint meetings
Must participate in Sprint Planning & Sprint Review
May participate in Daily Scrum and Sprint Retrospective

There should be only 1 PO
May also be a member of the development team
Ideally should NOT be the Scrum Master. Why?
There is a conflict of interest:

PO:
Looks after the needs of the business and all things that are valuable to the them.
SM:
Looks after the needs of the team. Shields the team from external interferences.

Collaboration between the two roles is important but some degree of separation is required.

When the role is carried out by the same person the conflicting interests become magnified and one or both sides end up losing.
The Team:

Responsible for delivering potentially shippable product increments at the end of each Sprint.

Ideal size 7 (+-2)
Ideally cross-functional and multi-skills (Not a Matrix environment)
If not fully cross functional then with large overlaps

SELF ORGANISING
The team collectively decides how to accomplish their work
Not directed by others outside the team
The team organizes its own time and what to do and when (as long as Sprint commitments are met)

Participates in Sprint meetings
Must participate in Sprint Planning, Review, Retrospective and Daily Scrum
NB: Daily Scrum must happen with or without the Product owner & Scrum Master
Scrum Master (SM):

SM ensures the Scrum process is used as intended, enforcer of rules of Scrum

NB: SM is NOT the team leader (manager), but the facilitator

Removes any impediments to help the team deliver the Sprint goals
Acts as a buffer between the team and any outside distractions
Shields the team from external interferences
Ensures the team is fully functional and productive
Helps the Product Owner & The Team with the Product, Release and Sprint Backlogs
Ensures ceremonies are followed: Daily Scrums, Sprint Planning, Reviews, and Retrospectives
Product backlog:
An ordered list of all requirements
Owned by the Product Owner
It includes new product development (NPD), bugs & issues, support & training
It could include Spikes! What are Spikes?
Time boxed periods of R&D used to research a concept and/or create a simple prototype

It is NOT to add new functionality mid-sprint which has NOT been estimated for effort and value
Try NOT to use Spikes to break the Scrum rules

Ordered by the Product Owner based on the value to business, risks, dependencies, SLA
Items are written in user story format
...
Estimated by the Team for the effort required: e.g. 1,2,3,5,8,
13,21
- Relative effort, not Days
Estimated for value to business by the Product Owner: e.g. 100, 75, 50, 25, 10 (%)
Product Owner could order by the effort / value ratio (optional)
...

Sprint Planning:

The Team agree to complete a set of
Ready
top-ordered Product Backlog items to
Done
status.
Create a Sprint Backlog. Based on the team’s velocity / capacity / length of the sprint.

Who is involved?
SM: To facilitate the meeting
PO: To clarify the details of the Product Backlog items and their acceptance criteria
Team: To define the work and effort necessary to complete the selected Product Backlog items to Done status

Team Velocity - Team Capacity

Sprint Planning Process
What Story Ready Means? - INVEST

A “Ready” item should be Clear, Feasible and Testable

Clear:
All Scrum team members have a shared understanding of what it means. Collaboratively writing user stories and adding acceptance criteria facilitates clarity.

Feasible:
It can be completed in one sprint. The item must be small and not too complex.

Testable:
Is there an effective way to determine if it works as expected. Acceptance criteria ensure that each story can be tested. As a rule of thumb: Between 3 -5 acceptance criteria per user story.
Daily Scrum:

It is stand up for a reason!

What you did yesterday
What you are going to do today
Any Impediments stopping you: (Any issues that others in the room can help with)

Max duration 15 minutes in total (Ave 2:30 per person)
Like all time-boxed events 15 min is the max if we finish in less time that is ok
Don’t feel you have to over elaborate to fill the time
If you need a longer discussion ---> arrange a meeting with all involved immediately after the Daily Scrum

Scrum Board:
Team Velocity?
The velocity of a team is derived from the previous Sprints.

Team Capacity?
For teams without a stable velocity. For each team member:
Number of hours in the work day?
No more than 6
Days in the sprint that the person will be available?


For 2 week Sprint no more than 9
Percentage of time the person will dedicate to this team?
Sprint Planning Process:

Usually in equal 2 parts: (2 x 2 hours --> for 2 week Sprints)

Part-1:
The Product Owner describes the highest ordered product backlog item(s)
The Product Owner & Team agree on the acceptance criteria - scope & exclusions - quality expectations - tolerances
The Team estimates the effort needed and selects items that it thinks it can finish in the Sprint.


Part-2:
The Team works out the tasks needed to complete each of the selected items
Team members volunteer to own the work
Work owners estimate the ideal hours they need to finish their work
If too many or too few items were selected in Part-1: Team renegotiates with the Product Owner

NB: There is a separation between (1) Requirements and (2) Tasks needed to complete the requirement
Sprint Termination:

ONLY IN EXTREME CASES

The Team
can only suggest termination to the Product Owner:
Cannot meet the sprint goal

Scrum Master
can only suggest termination to the Product Owner:
Team deviating excessively from the Scrum rules

Product Owner
is the only role with the authority to terminate the sprint:
Priorities change, business conditions change
Sprint Review:

2 Hour time-boxed meeting attended by all stakeholders (pigs & chickens)

Product Owner identifies what has been done
The Team discusses what went well, what problems it ran into and how they were solved
The Team demonstrates what was done during the sprint
Product Owner discusses the Product Backlog as it stands
Entire group collaborates on what to do next

Rules:
The Team should not spend more than 1 hour (each) preparing the demo
Functionality that are not
“Done”
cannot be presented
Functionality must be presented on “near-live” environment..
Not "here is one I made earlier"
Stakeholders can identify functionality that wasn't delivered or wasn't delivered as expected
Stakeholders can identify new functionality that occurs to them and request they are added to the Product Backlog for prioritisation

La manifeste Agile
4 valeurs
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