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Visualization for Intercultural Communication and Management

HSG 2013
by

Sabrina Bresciani

on 14 March 2015

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Transcript of Visualization for Intercultural Communication and Management

Visualization for Intercultural
Communication and Management

Visualization in Management
2. Sketches
Supports client communication
Creates involvement and invites participation
Creates personal touch and simplicity
Case: UBS Hand drawing library
3. Diagrams
Let’s practice!
Develop your own!
3 main goals
Synergies and tradeoffs
Synergy map
(sw: let’s focus)
Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram
}
5. Visual Metaphors
4. Knowledge Maps
6. Interactive & 3D
Virtual Worlds
Training
Schmeil, A., Eppler, M.J. (2008). Collaboration Patterns for Knowledge Sharing and Integration in Second Life: A Classification of Virtual 3D Group Interaction Scripts. Conference Proceedings I-KNOW 08, Graz, Austria
Voting/ Decision making
Lego Serious Play for strategy development and corporate identity workshops
Source: www.knowledge-communication.org www.lego.com
Adapted from: Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Visual Representations in Knowledge Management: framework and cases, Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(11), 112-122, 2007.
Eppler, M.J. & Mengis, J., Management Atlas, Management-Methoden für den Arbeitsalltag, Hanser, 2011. ISBN-10: 3-446-42701-5
Argument map
Mindmap
Roam, Dan. 2008. The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. Portfolio / Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
Source: Eppler M.J. & Pfister, R. (2010) Sketching at work. =mcm University of St. Gallen: pg. 21. Based on Mayer.
Conceptual
Metaphorical
Configurational
Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge”
Dual coding theory
(Paivio, 1969; Clark & Paivio, 1991)

Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal (textual, auditory, sequential)
-non-verbal or imagery (visual, spatial)
using both channels together increases:
recall, engagement and attention


Picture Superiority Effect
(Snodgrass Stewart & Stewart, 2001)
[Optional readings]

“the use of images in cognitive tasks leads to systematically
higher recall than the mere use of words, thanks to the additional
encoding enabled by pictures and their distinctiveness”
Theory
Recall
Source: Tufte, E. R., The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Connecticut,
Graphic Press, 1986.
(a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom
New Insight
Elaboration
Motivation
Coordination
Attention
Disadvantages
Please draw a house
Overdeterminism
Sources: Pro4s, Cambridge, UK
Shimoijma A., On the efficacy of Representations, Indiana University, PhD Thesis, 1996
Source: Bresciani, S., Eppler, M.J. (2009). The Risks of Visualization: a Classification of Disadvantages Associated with
Graphic Representations of Information. In: Schulz, P.J., Hartung, U., Keller, S. (Eds.), Identität und Vielfalt der
Kommunikations-wissenschaft, UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz (Germany), pp. 165-178
Confusion/Overload
Manipulation/Ambiguity
Wainer H., How to display data badly, The American Statistician, Vol. 38, n. 2, 1984.
Manipulation
llama
1. Color
2. Direction
3. Icons and symbols
4. Humor
5. Visual metaphors
6. Focus of attention
7. Nature of thought
7 main factors of cross-cultural differences
Visualization is a universal language.
True?
Yes
No
Source: United Nations ESCWA public report
Jamae Mosque, Singapore
Conventions of pictorial representation are culture-bound (Scott, 1990)
In the United States it is typical and welcome to use humor in business conversations (Lewis, 1999),
but in many other countries it is perceived as inappropriate, offensive and might not even be understood as humor
Metaphors fulfill their function only if they can be understood cross-culturally (Hogan 2007)
Only a handful of sports are well known globally (Beamer & Varner, 2008)
Field dependence-independence (Witkin and Berry, 1975)
Change blindness (Masuda & Nisbett, 2006)
1. Overcoming linguistic barriers
2. Providing double cues
3. Seeing the Big Picture
4. Surface misunderstanding
5. Prevent personal conflict
Reference:
Bresciani, S. (2013). Organizational Communication with Visual Mapping: Comparing East and West. In D. Ingenhoff (Ed.), Internationale PR-Forschung. Konstanz: UVK Verlag.
and the relations
* Power distance
Applications
World statistics
& data visualization

Meeting Facilitation
Advocacy
Management Learning
Sabrina Bresciani
bresciani.sabrina@gmail.com
sabrinabresciani.com
kolours.org
Why? Impact on emotional attitude (Huff, 1990; Buzan, 2002)
Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC.
[Optional reading]
Attention / Motivation
CARMEN
C
oordination: it facilitates interaction.
A
ttention: it is noticed.
R
ecall: it is remembered.
M
otivation: it mobilizes the viewers.
E
laboration: it fosters understanding.
N
ew insights: it enables new discoveries.
Empathy map
Elaboration
Theories and frameworks
Research evidence
Communicating strategy
- with text vs. visual
- with culture-specific visuals
Source: Bresciani S., Eppler M., Tan, M., (2011). Communicating Strategy Across Cultures with Visualization: An Experimental Evaluation. Academy of Management annual meeting, 12-16 August 2011: San Antonio, Texas. Carolyn Dexter Award nominee.
Effectiveness of global teams
Diversity should not be ignored!
Advantages
Classification
Source: Bresciani, S. (forthcoming). Do you see what I see? The Effect of Culture on the Reception of Visual Communication. In S. Poutiainen (Ed.), Theoretical Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Studies.
Sibbet, D. (2010). Visual meetings: how graphics, sticky notes and idea mapping can transform group productivity. Wiley. Chapter 9 pg. 109-132.
Source: Nisbett, R. E., & Miyamoto, Y. (2005). The influence of culture: holistic versus analytic perception. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences; 9 (10), 467-473.
Westerners favor reasoning that is:
-abstract
-analytic
-based on rules and categorization

East Asians:
-holistic view of the world
-focus on relationships
-focus on similarities
Research:
360 participants in Europe and Asia
Results:
- strategy is perceived as better

when it is visualized
- subjects are more committed to implement it!

Cultural preferences:
- Westerners prefer linear abstract diagrams
- Non-westerners prefer metaphors and story-telling
Visualization in an intercultural context
Intercultural Communication with visualization
1. Realistic
Photos
Videos
Illustrations
Sabrina Bresciani
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland

West: red-green color blindness
Africa and Polynesia: blue-yellow color blindness
(probably due to amount of sunlight)
*SPSS original output
Managerial implications:
An appropriate visualization is equal or better than text in all cultures
Cultural differences in the effects of visual representations compared to text:
- Europeans more commited with the linear diagram
- Asians are more committed with a metaphor
East Asia
Europe
East Asia
Europe
East Asia
Europe
Intention
Cognitive attitude
Affective attitude
East Asia
Europe
East Asia
Europe
East Asia
Europe
Hans Rosling, Professor of International Health at Karolinska Institute
www.gapminder.org
Visualization as a method
for analyzing cultural incidents
Connecting theory with practice
CocaCola websites around the world
USA
Germany
China
very structured, clear categories
crowded, people, faces
rules
vs.
relationships
Marketing
dramatic Japanese movie dealing with the happenings in Kobe during the Second World War
Purpose of cartoons, manga and anime
West
Asia
Japan
for children
serious topics
dramatic topics
(but changing...)
Visual humor
Why?
The Geography of Thought:
consequence of the influence of prominent philosophers over 2500 years ago.
Ancient Greeks: emphasized freedom and individuality, viewed argumentation and criticism of others’ point of view as a way to advance knowledge

Ancient Chinese: concerned primarily with social harmony, therefore public criticism and disagreement were discouraged.
Relationships are the basis of
society.
East Asians:
attend to the relationship between the object and the context in which the object is located

Favor reasoning that is:
-holistic view of the world
-focus on relationships
-focus on similarities
Westerners
Focus on a salient object independently of its context

Favor reasoning that is:
-abstract
-analytic
-based on rules and categorization
“perceptual processes are influenced by culture”
East Asia
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