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Morphology 1.1

Introduction to Morphology, Morphology and the Lexicon, Free vs. Bound Morphemes, Closed-Class vs. Open-Class Morphemes, Content vs. Function Morphemes

Jefferson NACLO

on 9 August 2013

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Transcript of Morphology 1.1

The lexicon is the mental dictionary
Two possible kinds of lexicon
Free morphemes can stand alone
a, cat, cattle, impress, fish, industry
Bound morphemes must be attached
In English, bound morphemes are mainly prefixes and suffixes
un-, -ed, -al, -ize
Content Morphemes
Change the meaning of the word
Bound content morphemes are "derivational"
Function Morphemes
Make a different form of the same word
Purely grammatical function
Change tense, make things plural
Bound function morphemes are "inflectional"
Monday, October 14, 2012
What is Morphology?
How does the brain store language?
Construction of Morphemes
Construction of Morphemes
Function of Morphemes
"A 'mugwump' is a fellow with his mug on one side of the fence and his wump on the other" ~Anonymous, c. 1884
Study of words
Each word made of morphemes
Morphological Analysis
The Smallest Unit of Language
What has meaning in the following words?
a, cat, cattle, unimpressed, fished, industrialize
Individual letters rarely have their own meaning
Some morphemes have multiple syllables
Some morphemes must be bound to others
Possibility #1
Lexical Entry #1
Lexical Entry #2
Lexical Entry #3
Lexical Entry #4
Lexical Entry #5
Lexical Entry #6
Lexical Entry #7
Lexical Entry #8
Lexical Entry #9
Lexical Entry etc.
Possibility #1
Spanish Class would be especially terrible...
Nimboran Speakers Could Learn One or Two Verbs
Possible Lexicons
Possibility #1: Store each word individually

Possibility #2: Morphemes
This seems awful.
1. Hablar
2. Hablando
3. Hablado
4. Hablo
5. Hablas
6. Habla
7. Hablamos
8. Habláis
9. Hablan
10. Hablé
11. Hablaste
12. Habló
13. Hablamos
14. Hablasteis
15. Hablaron
16. Hablaba
17. Hablabas
18. Hablábamos
19. Hablabais
20. Hablaban
21. Hable
22. Hables
23. Hablemos
24. Habléis
25. Hablen
26. Hablará
27. Hablarás
28. Hablaramos
29. Hablaréis
30. Hablarán
31. Hablaría
32. Hablarías
33. Hablaríamos
34. Hablaríais
35. Hablarían
36. Hablara
37. Hablaras
38. Hablaramos
39. Hablarais
40. Hablaran
4 tenses
Agreement with subject and object
Distinguishes 14 person/number combinations
3 Numbers (singular, dual, plural)
4 singular persons
5 plural persons
15 locative suffixes (think prepositions: in, on, above)
2 aspects (repeated, not repeated)
23,520 forms for a transitive verb
Open-Class Morphemes can have other morphemes attached to them
Nouns: Fish Fishes
Verbs: Fish Fishing
Adjectives: Fishy Fishiest
Closed-Class Morphemes cannot have morphemes attached to them
Prepositions: In, at, on
Determiners: The, a
Auxiliaries: Will, has
Full transcript