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APUSH Important Events
Transcript of APUSH Important Events
by Aaron G.
The colony of Jamestown was colonized by the Virginia Company of London in the year 1607.
The colony was established near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, off the coast of modern day Virginia.
The success of the colony came through the leadership of John Smith who moved the colonists to work for the survival of the settlement.
The colonizing of Jamestown proved to be the first successful and lasting attempt at colonization by the English.
"James Fort Construction." Painting. n.d. Settlement: Harsh Challenges Confront Colonists.
Web. 04 Jan. 2014. <http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/jamestown-settlement-fs.html>.
Slavery Brought to the New World
A Dutch warship first brought a group of Africans in 1619 off the coast near Jamestown.
This group of about twenty African individuals was sold to the people at Jamestown.
This action would plant the seeds to the North American slave system and would be a highly debated topic for decades to come, which would ultimately be resolved by war.
Granger. "Jamestown: Slavery, 1619." Cartoon.
02 July 2012. Jamestown: Slavery, 1619.
Fine Art America.
Web. 04 Jan. 2014. <http://fineartamerica.com/featured/2-jamestown-slavery-1619-granger.html>.
The House of Burgesses
In 1619, the Virginia Company allowed the colonists of Virginia to create their own representative assembly, which was called the House of Burgesses.
This assembly is marked as one of the first moves to self government in the land of North America.
House of Burgesses Assembly. Painting. n.d. The Virginia House of Burgesses.
Social Studies for Kids.
Web. 04 Jan. 2014. <http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/houseofburgesses.htm>.
Five Most Important Events
The Great Awakening
In 1733 and up until the 1740s, a great religious revival beginning in Northampton, Massachusettes and spreading through the British American colonies known as the Great Awakening.
Great ministers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were at the forefront of this revival preaching to thousands and moving many to repentance from their sinful lifestyles.
The Great Awakening was the first major, collective action that the colonists experienced together, with the revival's influence spreading across all of the thirteen colonies. The Great Awakening acted as a unifying factor bringing the peope of the individual colonies closer together.
Sermon during the Great Awakening. Painting. n.d. The First Great Awakening.
PB Works: APUSH Canvas.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://apushcanvas.pbworks.com/w/page/53613860/The%20First%20Great%20Awakening>.
The Zenger Trial
John Peter Zenger's Trial. Illustration. n.d. The Zenger Trial.
PB Works: Press in America.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://pressinamerica.pbworks.com/w/page/18360237/The%20Zenger%20Trial>.
In the years 1734-1735, John Peter Zenger was put on trial in New York for publishing criticism toward the royal goernor in his newspaper.
The royal chief justice believed him to be guilty for the mere fact of publishing his opinion, regarless of the validity of his statements.
Zenger's lawyer argued that the ability to call out and oppose the use of unrestrained power was at hand, and thus the jury went against the chief justice and proclaimed Zenger as not guilty.
Zenger's victory was an important success for freedom of the press allowing public debate and the ability to share true statements concerning a leader without the claims being automatically rejected as false.
Battle of Saratoga
Trumball, John. "Surrender of General Burgoyne." Painting. 1822. Battles of Saratoga.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Saratoga>.
On the 17th of October in 1777, British General Burgoyne surrendered his command to American General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York after his army was trapped by surrounding American militiamen.
American victory brought a revival and new vigor to the Patriot cause and helped in securing aid from France which would ultimately give the colonists the upper hand needed to win the war.
Mack, Stan. Shay's Rebellion. Illustration. n.d. Shay's Rebellion.
Blogspot: All Things John Adams.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://allthingsjohnadams.blogspot.com/2008/03/shays-rebellion.html>.
In 1786, Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays and other frustrated backcountry farmers violently revolted in western Massachusettes, demanding for the state to produce paper money, lighten taxes, and discontinue taking the property where their farms lie.
Though Shays's Rebellion was ultimately quelled, the new nation of America realized that government under the original Articles of Confederation would not be effective as the foundation for building the American Republic; the nation's leaders sought to discuss and reform the Articles, which would give birth to the Constitution.
Birth of Political Parties
Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans. Portrait. n.d. Lesson 3: The First American Party System: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans: The Platforms They Never Had.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/first-american-party-system-federalists-and-democratic-republicans-platforms-they-never->.
The Federalist party was given birth to in 1789, made up of men such as Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalists formed together to promote the ratification of the Constitution, directly in New York where Hamilton, Madison, and Jay would put forth the Federalist papers. Hamilton would become the major face of the party.
The Democratic-Republican Party came into action in 1792, led by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson opposed Hamilton's views of a centralized government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution, primarily in the establishment of a national bank, which the Constitution was silent on.
This feud between Hamilton and Jefferson over the strength of government and the interpretation of the Constitution gave way to a full scale political rivalry as more of the nation's citizens were informed of these leaders' views and became involved.
This resulted in the two-party political system which has existed in the nation, allowing freedom of political views.
Marbury vs. Madison Case
Marbury vs. Madison Inscription. Photograph. n.d. Marbury v. Madison.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marbury_v._Madison>.
The US Supreme Court case of Marbury vs. Madison took place in 1803 in the District of Columbia.
In the case, the justice of the peace for the District of Columbia, William Marbury, sued secretary of state, James Madison, for failing to deliver his commission.
In the end, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determinig the meaning of the Constitution, known as the practice of judicial review.
The Louisiana Purchase
Bond, Frank. "Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase." Map. 1912. Louisiana (New France).
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_(New_France)>.
In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte offered the French claims of Louisiana to the United States, which the American envoys to France, Robert R. Livingstone and James Monroe signed the treaties to receive the land for $15 million.
Upon receiving word of the unbelievable offer, President Thomas Jefferson submitted the treaties to annex this giant grant of land to the Senate though knowing it to be unconstitutional. The Senate, backed by public support, enthusiastically approved the purchase.
The Louisiana purchase gave the United States the desired city of New Orleans as well as land as far north as Montana and North Dakota and as far west as Wyoming and Colorado.
War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans. Painting. n.d. War of 1812.
The Free Dictionary: Legal Dictionary.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/War+of+1812>.
Outraged and fed up with the British practice of impressment, the incident of the Chesapeake Affair, and the British arming of Indians, President James Madison asked Congress to declare war on Britain in 1812.
The war lasted until 1814 and took place on American soil with major engagements in the Great Lakes Region, Washington D.C. and Baltimore, and New Orleans.
The conflict was ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. Though their was no true victor, the war proved that America would not injustices lightly and filled the American people with a revived sense of nationalism.
The Monroe Doctrine
James Monroe and Cabinet. Painting. n.d. Protecting the Young Republic.
Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://www.usdiplomacy.org/exhibit/protecting.php>.
Delivered in 1823, President James Monroe directed a warning to European powers in his annual address to Congress.
He declared that the time of colonization had come to an end in North and South America and no great national powers could take more. Additionally, he warned the European nations against intervention in the Western Hemisphere with its rising republics.
The Monroe Doctrine expressed Monroe's foreign policy and though not entirely powerful at the time and aided by the power of the British navy, the doctrine would be nationally accepted in the future.
Jackson's Campaign and Election
Sully, Thomas. "Andrew Jackson - 7th President of the United States (1829-1837). Portrait. 1824. United States presedential election, 1828.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1828>.
President Andrew Jackson was voted into office in 1828, after believeing to have been cheated the position by Henry Clay's decision as Speaker of the House to give the presidency to John Quincy Adams in the previous election.
Jackson's campaign brought on a new style of campaigning where the two parties aggressively fought for voter recognition. Both parties greatly endorsed mudslinging, speaking badly or mockingly about the opponent.
The 1828 election election also saw a greater voter turnout, massively increasing from the election of 1824.
The people believed Jackson's victory to be a rise of the masses, as he came from simple descent and now rose to the power of the presedential office.
The Second Great Awakening
Burbank, J. Maze. Methodist Revival. Painting. circa 1839. Second Great Awakening.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Great_Awakening>.
A second widespread revival began in the colonies from the 1790s up into the 1740s known as the Second Great Awakening.
The Second Great Awakening originated in the Southern frontier, stretching up into the Northeastern areas.
The revival was lead by powerful speakers such as Methodist Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison Finnley.
The influence of the Second Great Awakening brought many people to repentance and also inspired many new reform movements such as those in prison reform, women's rights, and the abolition of slavery.
Finseth, Ian F. "Rise of Evangelicalism." Rise of Evangelicalism. N.p., Aug. 1995. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma95/finseth/evangel.html>.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Anti-Slavery Cartoon. Cartoon. n.d. American Anti-Slavery Society.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=67175>.
"The African-American Mosaic." Influence of Prominent Abolitionists: (Library of Congress Exhibition). The Library of Congress, 23 July 2010. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam006.html>.
The American Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1833 in Philidelphia.
The society was lead by radical aboltionists such as William Lloyd Garrison, Arthur Tappan and Lewis Tappan, Frederick Douglas, and Wendell Phillips.
The society strongly fought against the institution of slavery through newspapers and propaganda as well as through personal testimonies of escaped slaves such as Frederick Douglas.
Gast, John. "American Progress." Painting. 1872. Manifest Destiny.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_destiny>.
The movement of Manafest Destiny came into effect during the elction of 1844 and into the 1850s.
Manafest Destiny was the belief that it was God's destiny for the American people to acquire all westward land leading up to the Pacific Ocean.
The Democratic party with James K. Polk as their presedential candidate endorsed this expansionist spirit of many of the American citizens at this time by pushing for the annexation of Texas and the 49th parallel of Oregon from Britain.
The spirit of Manafest Destiny moved the American people to move westward and acquire the land we have today.
The Mexican War
American Camp during the Mexican War. Painting. n.d. The Border: The U.S. Mexican War.
. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/history/timeline/5.html>.
President James K. Polk pushed for war against Mexico in 1846 for the attack of Mexico against American troops on disputed American soil between the Neuceus and Rio Grande rivers.
General Winfield Scott found the war victory as he took the capital at Mexico City in 1847.
The chief clerk of the State Departmen, Nicholas P. Trist negotiated peace terms and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, confirming the American title of Texas and giving America the land of California along with land reaching up into Oregon.
The Election of 1860
and the Southern Secession
"Dividing the National Map." Cartoon. 1860. United States Presedential Election of 1860.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Presidential_Election_of_1860>.
In 1860, Abraham Lincoln won the presidency for the Republican party.
In the same breath, remaining true to their word and feeling threatened by the victory of the sectional Republicans, South Carolina seceded from the Union, closely followed by Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as four more states in the future.
The seceded states formed their own government, known as the Confederate States of America, and elected Jefferson Davis as their President.
and the Emancipation Proclamation
McClelln, B. "Battle of Antietam." Painting. 1888. Battle of Antietam.
Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Antietam>.
In 1862, General George McClellan successfully halted the advancing Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee at Antietam Creek, Maryland.
Union victory marked a turning point in the war as McClellan stopped the Confederates nearing victory, foreign intervention was withheld, and Lincoln put into action his Emancipation Proclamation.
The Emancipation Proclamation would change the central goal of Union victory to putting a permanent end to slavery in the South.
The Thirteenth Amendment
Thirteenth Amendment. Illustration. n.d. 13th Amendment. Texas Politics. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://www.laits.utexas.edu/txp_media/html/cons/features/0206_01/slide3.html>.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865 after passing the Senate, the House, and the necessary amount os state legislatures as given to the states by Congress. The passing of the Amendment was lagely overseen by Lincoln, although he did not live to see it completely passed.
This Amendmment formally abolished slavery in the South and in all of the United States.
The First and Second
Matheson, T. H. "The First Prayer in Congress." Painting. 1848. Stephen Crane (Continental Congress).
Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Crane_(Continental_Congress)>.
In the years 1774 and 1775, on the brink of all out war against Britain, delegates from all thirteen colonies, except for Georgia in 1774, met in Philidelphia to discuss how to address the oppression from the royal government. During these meetings of the Continental Congress, the men drafted appeals to the British government such as the Olive Branch Petition in 1775 declaring loyalty and listing colonial grievances, all to be ejected by King George III.
Prominent men among the meetings of the Continental Congress inclued men such as Samuel Adams, John Adams, Georger Washington, and Patrick Henry.
The events of the two Continental Congresses were significant because they brought together the people spread out amongst thirteen individual colonies and united them together. Communication and interaction between colonies before the congress and the war were very limited as their were diverse peoples amongst the colonies with different languages, religions, customs, traditions, and beliefs. The people mainly kept to those with similar lifestyles to their own. However, during the time of King George's numerous taxes against the colonies they all together experienced the same oppression and therefore they stood up together, casting aside their differences, to address the injustices and deal with them. The Continental Congresses have one of the greatest impact on American HIstory because it showed a diverse people, separated by differences in religion, race, culture, and beliefs coming together to form a new identity of American people, and addressing a problem that went against the values of freedom and equality that they cherised and addressing it as one. Had they not come together, they never would have revolted together or would have never had the opportunity to govern a new nation where the voice of the people is heard and men are free from tyrannical rule. The Continental Congresses allowed men of different backgrounds but similar ideals to form together and create the identity of a new people who cherished freedom.
at the Close of the Civil War
Southern Negotiations. Painting. n.d. Civil War Battles.
Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://mrkash.com/activities/civilwarbattles1.html>.
At the close of the Civil War in 1865, the Union found victory as they captured the confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia and the cornering of General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, where Lee and Union General Ulysses S. Grant discussed the terms of surrender. The Southerners were blessed with gracious terms of surrender as they were to be reinstated into the Union and were allowed to keep their horses to aid them in growing food in their home which underwent the destruction brought on by war.
The surrender of the Southern Civil War effort at Appomattox Courthouse was significant because it proved the strength of the Union and the Republic form of government which it practiced. From the onset of the United States, strong nations, especially those in Europe, had looked in anticipation to the utter collapse of America under its practice of democracy. American democracy was not perfect, and for a moment it seemed as if it underwent an unmendable crisis as a large amount of the Southern states seceded from the Union. But even through the shaking of the war, the Republic stood and was able to heal itself over time as the South was administered back into the Union. The Northern victory of the Civil War has great significance in American History because it proved that even through adversity and trials, the American experiment of democracy remained standing. The American peoples ideals of liberty from tyrannical, monarchial rule had survived through the fires of war.
Treaty of Paris
Seiler, Carl Wilhem Anton. "Signing the Preliminary Treaty of Paris." Painting. 1782. Treaty of Paris (1783).
Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1783)>.
The Declaration of
Stone, William. The Declaration of Independence. Manuscript Copy. 1823. File: US Declaration of Independence.
Web. 07 Jan. 2014 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Us_declaration_independence.jpg>.
of the Constitution
Christly, Howard Chandler. "Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States." Painting. 1940. Constitutional Convention (United States).
Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_Convention_(United_States)>.
After the end of the Revolutionary War, peace negotiations between Britain, France, and America were completed in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris in Paris, France. Americans, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay were sent as peace negotiators
The terms of the treaty included the formal recognition of the United States as an independent nation, the United States receiving of land as far north as the Great Lakes and as far west as Mississippi, share in the New Foundland fisheries, discontinued persecution to Loyalists, and the repayment of those owing debts to Britain.
The significance of the end of the Revolutionary War and the Treaty of Paris is that the rebelling British colonies came through and in the end were recognized as an independent nation from the mother country of Britain. The Americans were the small, outnumbered, outgunned, and outskilled side during the war, yet with the aid of France and motivation and passion from their moral cause to fight for liberty from the oppressive rule of monarchies, like that of King George III, they were able to overcome. The end of the Revolutionary War and the Treaty of Paris comes before in significance because it marked the point in time when America achieved the recognition as a nation. If the colonists had not won the war, there would be no American spirit of Democracy to prove or test because it would have been restrained by the power of the the king in his victory. Winning the war allowed America to have the opportunity to have a government ruled by the people.
In 1776, Thomas Jefferson penned the official and formal statement of separation from Britain, the Declaration of Independence, in Philadelphia Massachusettes.
Jefferson argued in the document that the king had violated their rights as men, and therfore were justifiably given the authority to cut off connections from his rule.
The Declaration of Independence is significant because it demonstrated that the people would no longer tolerate unjust rule. King George III had inflicted taxes on the colonists of America with no representation in Parliament; the colonists were unfairly forced to submit to the decision of the royal government without their consent. And when the king refused to listen to their grievances, rather than give up hope, the colonists decided to act, breaking away from Britain's hand. The Decleration of Independence is greater in significance because it was the faith filled step that brought us the United States of America. Had the colonists allowed the overpowering of the British government to take control of them, they may have never had taken that step to abandon the mother country. Yet the colonists did take action because they treasured liberty and would not allow any man or power to take it from them. The daringness of the Declaration of Independence would be the act that would bring forth the United States of America.
In response to the flawed Articles of Confederation, the Constitution was crafted in Philadelphia and after gaining support from the states, was ratified in the nation in 1788.
Men present at the convention for drawing up the Constitution were prominent individuals such as Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison among others.
States were doubtful at first about accepting the Constitution as it provided a more centralized government than that under the Articles of Confederation but received acceptance through the ratifying conventions.
The Constitution is significant because it is the law by which the American people are held and which they submit to. The law of the Constitution dictates what is allowable in the nation and what is not. Further it regulates the powers of government so that no one branch of government becomes more powerful than another, creating a monarch like rule that America had just separated themselves from. Additionally, the Constitution guarantees fundamental rights of the citizens which government cannot take away. The Constitution is greater in significance because it is the law which has allowed the nation to survive. During the times of the Articles of Confederation, government had very weak control and states made their own decisions creating a situation that would not work. The Constitution has and continues to be the governing factor that maintains control in government. The creation of the Constitution has allowed the nation of America to survive the test of time and maintain control.