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Thesis

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Enrique Nieto

on 10 September 2012

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Transcript of Thesis

Spanish Rural Development Programs (RDPs): The implementation of an Integrated Rural Development Approach (IRD) OUTLINE 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations 1. Introduction Importance of rural areas in Spain EU Rural development policies Enrique J. Nieto Antón 1. Introduction Rural areas are important in Spain in terms of population, territory and economy.

Facing many challenges which are in need of an effective policy approach. Rural areas in Spain Territory and population Rural Economy Rural challenges PR: 13.2%
IR: 38.3%
PU: 48.5% Employment and GDP: Rural Diversification Depopulation
Rural-Urban income disparities
Provision of servicies
The new agricultural role
Environmental degradation
New social demands Why this research? Why Spain?? 1957 2013 ... EU Rural Development Approaches Shrinking importance of Agricultural sector Employment opportunities and relevant Gross Value Added (GVA) GVA & Employment in Spain (2008) Farm structure: Labour productivity: Farm profitability 2.6% annual growth (2003-2008). Agr. only represents 2% of the employment in IR and 10% and PR.
GDP: PR 12.3% & IR 4.6%. Small size farms (52.8% of total farms) and in big farm (9.7%). Highly dependent of EU direct payments. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Rural diversification Aging farmers population: Agr worker 55 years old on average. Better performance Organic agriculture Renewable Energies Rural tourism Transformation industries EU rural areas face broad range of challenges & constraints. Implementation of a development approach that addreses all those challenges and constraints. PR:46.1%
IR:39.5%
PU:14.4% 1973 Treaty of Rome
(6 countries) Modernization approach Regional Development Policies 1975 Agricultural structural policies Enlargement of EU Creation of the ERDF Denmark & Ireland 2nd Enlargement of EU Greece, Spain & Portugal 80's (1986) Integrated Mediterranean Programs IMP's (1988) The future of rural society. (1988) Structural Funds reform (5 Objective regions) (1991) LEADER Problems of the Modernization 90's Integrated Approach Enhance productivity of the agricultural sector
But other problems arise, such as environmental, rural unemployment. Reforms which includes environmental measures, rural diversification and quality of life. The Cork declaration (1996) EU policy framework on RD must tackle the agricultural adjustment and development, economic diversification, sustainable management of natural resources, enhancement of environment and the promotion of culture, tourism and recreation in European rural areas. Agenda 2000 Implementation period 2007-13 Creation of 2nd Pillar of CAP RD based on program implementation of 22 pre-existent measures Diversity of programs and complexity in financial mechanisms of measures. But... Still most of the measures aim to develop the agricultural sector and few to address other rural issues. 10% 25% 10% 5% RD Programs in Spain 2007-2013 2. Problem statement Importance of rural areas in the country, which face many chanlleges outside agriculture Intended shift in the approach for EU RD toward an IRD approach How is the IRD approach being implemented in Spain?? 3. Integrated Rural Development approach Outcomes:
Overproduction of agricultural commodities
Declining number of farmers
Reduction of employment opportunities in ag. sector
Increasing disparities among farms and regions
Reduction of quality of producers
Rural depopulation
Degradation of landscape, nature and environment. It is an multidiciplinary policy approach in concept, multisectoral in application with a clear territorial dimension (E.C., 1996). Tackles all rural setors to overcome and address rural constraints and challenges:

Employment, rural diversification, agricultural adjustment, environmental degardation, culture, traditions, human and rural social issues ... Two main functions of RD policies: Address all socio-economic sectors of rural areas. Cont... Rural diversification
Multifunctionality of agriculture Endogenous development Adapted to territorial needs & aspirations
Participation of local stakeholders
Benefits remain locally
Exploitation of local resources Culture
Traditions
Local social, human & natural capital "Endogenous patterns are based on mainly, but not exclusively on locally available resources, making full use of the ecology, labor force and knowledge of an area and patterns which have been developed locally to link production and consumption, maintaining in the region the added value generated from this development" Van der Ploeg, 2006. Applying it into the current policy arrangement... Beyond a pure endogenous approach ... conflict of interests?? Key elements for IRD Clasification of measures EU level Top down/Bottom up Regional-Local level Participation OUTLINE 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations OUTLINE 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations Conflicts with a pure endogenous approach Social exclusion and legitimacy of social groups to participate in development The approach isolates the area hamper the use of external factors that might bring development leading to an underdevelopment. ... there is scope for external interaction while local actors have the control of the development process. (Loew et al, 1995) Design, negotiate and enforce regulations and policies that work for the interests of MS, large interests groups and multinational business. They obtain the overall picture of the rural context in EU with an objective perspective of the long term EU needs but lack of knowledge on specific local specifities and needs. Adapt policies to local specifities and context in order to achieve the EU objectives. Shift RD approach towards an IRD approach aiming at diversification of Rural economies through the use of endogenous resources. Framework of an IRD approach Address all rural constraints and challenges
Employment, economic diversification,
agricultural adjustment, environmental degardation Two main functions of RD policies: Address all socio-economic sectors of rural areas. Cont... Rural diversification
Multifunctionality of agriculture Endogenous development Adapted to territorial needs & aspirations
Participation of local stakeholders
Benefits remain localy
Exploitation of local resources Culture
Traditions
Local social, human & natural capital "Endogenous patterns are based on mainly, but not exclusively on locally available resources, makin full use of the ecology, labor force and knowledge of an area and patterns which have been developed locally to link production and consumption, maintaining in the region the added value generated from this development" Van der Ploeg, 2006. Applying it into the current policy arrangement... Beyond a pure endogenous approach ... conflict of interests?? Key elements for IRD Clasification of measures EU level Top down/Bottom up Regional-Local level Participation Conflicts with a pure endogenous approach Social exclusion and legitimacy of social groups to participate in development The approach isolates the area hamper the use of external factors that might bring development leading to an underdevelopment. ... there is scope for external interaction while local actors have the control of the development process. (Loew et al, 1995) Design, negotiate and enforce regulations and policies that work for the interests of MS, large interests groups and multinational business. They obtain the overall picture of the rural context in EU with an objective perspective of the long term EU needs but lack of knowledge on specific local specifities and needs. Adapt policies to local specifities and context in order to achieve the EU objectives. OUTLINE 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations 1. Qualitative Analysis 2. Quantitative Analysis 4. Methodology To capture the IRD approach and the main rural features addressed by the policy arrangement Based on Lataste et al (2011) and Copus A.K. (2010) Methodology Classification of RD measures Policy function and IRD approach Main rural feature addressed Based on Lataste et al (2011) and Copus A.K. (2010) Methodology To characterize the implementation patterns accross the RD programs in Spain. Aim: How: Through Public budget allocations accross RD measures
www.redr.es/es/portal.do?IDM=52&NM=2. Logic of interventions of the IRD approach in each RD program
1. Thematic interventions
2. Measure groups Implementation patterns of the IRD approach in Spain
1. Cluster analysis
2. Anova test Address all rural constraints and challenges
Employment, economic diversification,
agricultural adjustment, environmental degardation Two main functions of RD policies: Address all socio-economic sectors of rural areas. Cont... Rural diversification
Multifunctionality of agriculture Endogenous development Adapted to territorial needs & aspirations
Participation of local stakeholders
Benefits remain localy
Exploitation of local resources Culture
Traditions
Local social, human & natural capital "Endogenous patterns are based on mainly, but not exclusively on locally available resources, makin full use of the ecology, labor force and knowledge of an area and patterns which have been developed locally to link production and consumption, maintaining in the region the added value generated from this development" Van der Ploeg, 2006. Applying it into the current policy arrangement... Beyond a pure endogenous approach ... conflict of interests?? Key elements for IRD Clasification of measures EU level Top down/Bottom up Regional-Local level Participation Conflicts with a pure endogenous approach Social exclusion and legitimacy of social groups to participate in development The approach isolates the area hamper the use of external factors that might bring development leading to an underdevelopment. ... there is scope for external interaction while local actors have the control of the development process. (Loew et al, 1995) Design, negotiate and enforce regulations and policies that work for the interests of MS, large interests groups and multinational business. They obtain the overall picture of the rural context in EU with an objective perspective of the long term EU needs but lack of knowledge on specific local specifities and needs. Adapt policies to local specifities and context in order to achieve the EU objectives. OUTLINE 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
6. Recommendations OUTLINE 5. Results & Conclusion Institutional inclusion of the IRD approach 1. Policy function Sectoral function Multisectoral function Nº of measures 49% 50% Budget breakdown 58.4% 41.6% Policy Function 2. IRD approach IRD approach Non-IRD approach Nº of measures 86% 14% Budget breakdown 71.5% 38.5% IRD Approach 3. Policy function + IRD approach Nº of measures Sectoral function 31.4% 68.6% Multisectoral function 43.0% 57% IRD Approach IRD Approach accross regions Budget Breakdown Critics on the current implementation period 1. The IRD approach is not being implemented
IRD: Only multisectoral function

2. IRD follows in its mayority a sectoral function
IRD: all Policy arrangement Conclusion: Institutional arrangement for RD policies:

1. Balance between sectoral and multisectoral measures.
2. High institutional inclusion of the IRD approach.
3. Most of RD measures not only aim to achieve the objective under they stand but also other objectives. Consideration of the sinergies and complementarities in the new RD policy arrangement.

Implementation of RD policies in Spain:

1. Implementation balance between two RD policy functions.
2. High implementation of an IRD approach in Spain (variability accross regions).

Implementation of an IRD approach:

1. Implementation balance of the sectoral and multisectoral policy function. 5. Results & Conclusion (cont.) Intervention logics 1. RD programs in Spain. 2. IRD approach 81.5% of the IRD budget is destined to 25% of the Integrated measures Conclusion: RD programs in Spain:

1. Main priority is Primary sector competitiveness
2. Secondary priority is Agro-enviroment and forestry and Human capital and local capacity themes.
Variability accross regions

IRD approach in Spain:

1. Main priority in Agro-environment and forestry theme.
2. Secondary priority are Primary sector competitiveness and Human capital and local capacity
(variability accross regions).
3. Concentration on few measures. 5. Results & Conclusion (cont.) Implementation pattrens of an IRD approach in Spain 1. Implementation patterns. 2. Characteristics Pattern 1: Agro-environment and forestry based Pattern 2: Human capital and Local capacity based Pattern 3: Balanced pattern Conclusion: Agro-environment and forestry:
The conservation of the lanscape and the environment through sustainable farming practices and the restoration, conservation of forestry areas.

Primary Sector Competitiveness:
Infrastructure development, support to LFA and increasing the value added of agricultural products through enhancing and promoting quality products.

Human capital and Local capacity:
Support rural diversification, enhancement of quality of life through LAGs and intergenerational transformation of the agricultural sector. 6. Recommendations: Up Scale the research to EU.

Better understanding on the complementarities, synergies and spill-over effects of the measures.

Enhance the classification of RD measures according to their integrative component (objective and quantitative approach).

Determinants of the different implementation patterns. Understand how the Rural Development approach is being implemented. 1. Introduction Rural Typology in EU Source: E.C., 2011. Population distribution in Spain Territorial distribution in Spain Source: EC, 2011 Source: E.C., 2011 Source: E.C., 2011 1. Introduction Why Spain?? 1. Introduction 00 07 1. Introduction 1. Introduction Public budget allocation by themes Public budget allocation by themes and regions IRD budget allocation by themes IRD budget allocation by themes and regions Implementation patterns of the IRD approach in Spain National Strategic Plan (NPS) : determine the objectives for RD in line with EU Strategic guideline and 2003 reform of CAP: Modulation National framework: 7 Horizontal measures RD Programs 1. Modernization of irrigation infrastructure
2. Rural infrastructure (Roads, parceling...)
3. Increase value added of agro-forestry products
4. Advisory services
5. Incorporation of young farmers
6. Restoration of habitats in Natura 2000
7. Fire prevention and management. RD programs by region and Axis Public budget shares to LEADER in EU 1. Introduction
2. Problem Statement
3. Integrated Rural Development Approach
4. Methodology
5. Results & Conclusions
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To my supervisors Prof. Gianluca Brunori (University of Pisa, Italy) and Prof. Edelmiro Lopez (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain) for all their wise guidance and feedback.

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