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Copy of Mind Mapping Template

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Sulaikha Dinoy

on 4 February 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Mind Mapping Template

Skeletal System
-scaffold by providing support and protection
Axial Skeleton
-made up of 80 bones in six regions
• Skull, Hyoid, Auditory ossicles, Ribs, Sternum & Vertebral column
-upright posture of humans is maintained by the axial skeleton, which transmits the weight from the head, the trunk, and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints.
-A human is able to survive with just the axial portion of their skeleton.
Upper Limbs
Appendicular Skeleton
-made up of 126 bones in 4 regions:
• Upper limbs
• Lower limbs
• Pelvic girdle
• Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
-Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of digestion, excretion and reproduction.
Lower Limbs
Pectoral Girdle
Human Skeleton
-internal framework of the body, composed of
270 bones at birth
, decreases to
206 bones by adulthood
after some bones have fused together
-serves six major functions;
support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of ions and endocrine regulation.
-divided into the
axial skeleton
and the
appendicular skeleton
Vertebral Column
Auditory Ossicles

Pelvic Girdle
-The skull is composed of 22 bones that are fused together.
-21 fused bones are separate in children to allow the skull and brain to grow, but fuse to give added strength and protection as an adult.
-The bones of the superior portion of the skull are known as the cranium and protect the brain from damage.
-The bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are known as facial bones and support the eyes, nose, and mouth.
-The hyoid is a small, U-shaped bone
-the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other bone—it is a floating bone.
-is to help hold the trachea open and to form a bony connection for the tongue muscles.
-are the smallest bones in the body.
-Found in a small cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve to transmit and amplify sound from the eardrum to the inner ear.
-There are 12 pairs of ribs
-The first seven ribs are known as “true ribs” because they connect the thoracic vertebrae directly to the sternum through their own band of costal cartilage.
-Ribs 8, 9, and 10 are false ribs.
-Ribs 11 and 12 are also false ribs, but are also considered to be “floating ribs” because they do not have any cartilage attachment to the sternum at all.
-The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton.
-The sternum connects to the ribs by thin bands of cartilage called the costal cartilage.
-Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body. They are named by region:
• Cervical (neck) - 7 vertebrae
• Thoracic (chest) - 12 vertebrae
• Lumbar (lower back) - 5 vertebrae
• Sacrum - 1 vertebra
• Coccyx (tailbone) - 1 vertebra
-With the exception of the singular sacrum and coccyx, each vertebra is named for the first letter of its region and its position along the superior-inferior axis.
Formed by the left and right hip bones, the pelvic girdle connects the lower limb (leg) bones to the axial skeleton.
It consists of the clavicle and scapula in humans and, in those species with three bones in the pectoral girdle, the coracoid.
The pectoral girdle connects the upper limb (arm) bones to the axial skeleton and consists of the left and right clavicles and left and right scapulae.
basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, urinary bladder, and internal sex organs.
Microscopic Structure of Bones
The skeleton makes up about 30-40% of an adult’s body mass. The skeleton’s mass is made up of nonliving bone matrix and many tiny bone cells. Roughly half of the bone matrix’s mass is water, while the other half is collagen protein and solid crystals of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.

Living bone cells are found on the edges of bones and in small cavities inside of the bone matrix. Although these cells make up very little of the total bone mass, they have several very important roles in the functions of the skeletal system. The bone cells allow bones to:

Grow and develop
Be repaired following an injury or daily wear
Be broken down to release their stored minerals
Types of Bones
All of the bones of the body can be broken down into five types: long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.
. Long bones are longer than they are wide and are the major bones of the limbs. Long bones grow more than the other classes of bone throughout childhood and so are responsible for the bulk of our height as adults.
Short. Short bones are about as long as they are wide and are often cubed or round in shape. The carpal bones of the wrist and the tarsal bones of the foot are examples of short bones.
Flat. Flat bones vary greatly in size and shape, but have the common feature of being very thin in one direction. Because they are thin, flat bones do not have a medullary cavity like the long bones.
Irregular. Irregular bones have a shape that does not fit the pattern of the long, short, or flat bones.
Sesamoid. The sesamoid bones are formed after birth inside of tendons that run across joints. Sesamoid bones grow to protect the tendon from stresses and strains at the joint and can help to give a mechanical advantage to muscles pulling on the tendon.
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