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The Solar System

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Connor Hammon

on 21 October 2012

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Transcript of The Solar System

The Solar System Sun http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/photos/sun-gallery/ Our sun is a common mid-sized yellow star and is the center of our Solar system. The sun is the brightest star near earth and is approximately five billion years old. The Sun has a lot of natural satellites orbiting it. These include the eight planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. A Brief Description How the Sun Was Formed Like most stars, the sun was formed in a vast cloud of dust and gas called a nebula. Over millions of years, gravity began to bring together the dust and gas to a common center point. At the center, an increasingly growing body of mass was forming. As the matter fell inward, it produced an enormous amount of heat and pressure. As it grew, the sun became hotter and hotter until it reached a temperature of about one million degrees. When it reached this point, the core ignited, the process of nuclear fusion began, and a star was born. Interesting Facts Did you know, that the Sun’s roman name is Sol and that is why we live in the Solar System. Did you know, that the Sun accounts for 98% of the Solar System’s mass. That means that all the planets and other celestial bodies only make up 2% of the Solar System! Mercury http://www.ismercuryinretrograde.com/bg.jpg Mercury has a very slow period of rotation, completing one day to every 59 Earth days. Its period of revolution is fast having one year to every 88 Earth days. Mercury has no natural satellites orbiting it. Mercury has an elliptical orbit unlike all of the other planets. At its closest point it is 46 million km (0.307 AUs) from the sun. At its farthest point it is 70 million km (0.466 AUs) from the sun. Interesting Facts Until MESSENGER in 2008, NASA only had close up pictures of one half of Mercury taken by MARINER 10 in 1974-1975.

Because of craters at the poles of Mercury, it might be possible for ice to have formed because these areas never see the sun.

Unlike Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, which were discovered in the last few hundred years, ancient peoples have known about Mercury for thousands of years. Photo of Mercury thanks to NASA's MESSENGER http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2006/MESSENGER_Sunside.jpg Venus https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-uG5A6QJJH5Q/UIBigtUdM_I/AAAAAAAAAGU/ha8GoV_DXo8/s640/Venus.jpg Venus Express By Connor p.
Hammon

Period 4 At 108 million km, or 0.72 AUs, Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun. Its period of rotation is a whopping one Venus day to every 243 Earth days! Its period of revolution is one year for 224.7 Earth days. Venus doesn't have any natural satellites orbiting it. hi Min Ki Hong rocks my world! Although it’s similar in size and mass to the Earth, the atmosphere of Venus sets it apart. The mass of the atmosphere is 93 times that of the Earth’s atmosphere. If you could stand on the surface of Venus, you would experience 92 times the pressure you have on Earth. This is the same as going nearly a kilometer underneath the surface of the ocean.

During the height of the space race, the Soviet Union launched a series of spacecraft to attempt landings on the surface of Venus. The early spacecraft were crushed as they passed down through the heavy atmosphere.

Until the Americans and Soviets sent their first spacecraft to study Venus up close, nobody really knew what was down under the planet’s thick clouds. Science fiction writers dreamed up lush tropical jungles Interesting Facts Earth http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01588/earth460_1588369c.jpg Hubble Telescope http://www.worldculturepictorial.com/images/content_2/hubble-telescope_in_space.jpg Earth is the third farthest from the sun and the largest of the terrestrial planets. Earth's period of rotation is 23 hours and 56 minutes. Earth's period of revolution is 365 days, 6 hours and 16 minutes. The Earth is 149,597,891 km away from the Sun (1 AU). The Earth has one natural satellite called the moon. Interesting Facts In addition to the moon, Earth has two asteroids that are locked in co-orbital orbits with Earth. One, 3753 Cruithne, is 5 km across, and sometimes called Earth’s second moon. It does not actually orbit the Earth, but has a synchronized orbit with our home planet. The other, 2002 AA29, is only 60 meters across, and makes a horseshoe orbit around the Earth that brings it close to the planet every 95 years.

Experts claim that nearly 1,000 tons of space debris rains down on Earth every year.

Earth is not the only planet in the solar system with water. It is believed that most planets, comets, and moons have water in the form of ice even if in the smallest amount. Mars Moon The moon is Earth's only (official) natural satellite. It is the fifth largest natural satellite in the solar system. It is 4.5 billion years old and is believed to have been created when the Earth was hit by a large asteroid during its formation. The moon is Earth's only (official) natural satellite. It is the fifth biggest natural satellite in the solar system and is bigger than both Pluto and Makemake. The moon is about 4.5 billion years old and is believed to have been formed when an asteroid struck the Earth during its early years of development. Hubble Telescope http://www.reviewstl.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Hubble-Space-Telescope-NASA-2010-Picture.jpeg Interesting Facts The moon stabilizes Earth's wobble keeping our climate steady over billions of years.

We have sent over 70 space craft to the moon, and 12 astronauts have walked on its surface. http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Slideshows/_production/ss_060310_mars/ss_060310_mars_01.grid-8x2.jpg Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the seventh largest in our Solar System. Mars is 227,936,640 km from the sun (1.52 AU). The period of rotation for mars is 24 hours and 37 min. The period of revolution is 687 Earth days. Mars has two natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Interesting Facts One of Mars' moons, Phobos, is slowly spiraling down towards the surface. It is expected to crash or break up and form a ring around the planet in the next 50 million years.

On Earth, the time it takes for the Earth to rotate completely is called a day, but on mars, the time it takes to rotate is a sol.

The largest volcanic mountain in the Solar System is located on Mars. It is called Olympus Mons. Hubble Telescope http://www.kennedyspacecenter.com/images/img_hubbleArtExhibit.jpg Asteroid Belt Artist's Representation The Asteroid Belt is a collection of asteroids located between Mars and Jupiter. It is 4.5 billion years old and is believed to be a collection of the remains of the early universe that never became a planet. Another theory suggests that used to be a planet but was destroyed over time. Interesting Facts It is very hard to get a picture of the Asteroid Belt because the asteroids are so small and far apart and when zoomed in you can only focus on one or two at a time.

Some of the larger asteroids have smaller asteroids orbiting them. These smaller asteroids are called binary asteroids. Jupiter http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Jupiter_on_2009-07-23_(captured_by_the_Hubble_Space_Telescope).jpg Hubble Telescope http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-PkUTstUKSZQ/Td5LU5OMPhI/AAAAAAAABYA/PjiEdJP47aU/s1600/hubble.jpg Jupiter is the fifth planet from our Sun and the most massive. It is the first of the four gas giants and has 49 discovered natural satellites. Some of these satellites are believed to be asteroids that were pulled towards the planet by its massive gravitational force. Its period of rotation is 9 hours and 56 minutes but its period of revolution is 4,331 Earth days. Jupiter is 778,412,020 km from the Sun (5.2 AUs). Interesting Facts Jupiter has 63 known moons but many have only recently been discovered. In 2003 alone astronomers discovered 23 new moons!The Great Red Spot is Jupiter’s most well know storm. It is a hurricane like storm that has been around for 400 years and is the size of three Earths!Jupiter has an atmosphere comprised of mostly hydrogen and helium much like the sun. A few astronomers even refer to Jupiter as a failed star... Although it would need to be 80 times bigger! Saturn http://i.space.com/images/i/2755/i02/h_porco_saturn_02.jpg?1292266153 Cassini Space Probe http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/htmlsite/1204/images/1204feature-2.jpg Saturn is the second largest planet and is the sixth planet away from the Sun. Saturn is 1,426,725,400 km from the Sun (9.6 AUs). Like Jupiter, Saturn has a short period of rotation only 10 hours and 39 minutes. Even though the days are short, Saturn has an incredibly long year at 10,759 Earth days! Saturn has 52 discovered moons the largest of which is Titan. Interesting Facts Saturn is the least dense planet in the solar system. With a density of 0.687 grams/cm3 Saturn would float in water... If you could get a big enough tub.

There could be life on one of Saturn’s moons, Enceladus. We have recently discovered geysers blasting out of the southern pole, and usually where there is liquid water, there is life.

Unlike many people believe, Saturn is not the only planet with rings. Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune also have rings surrounding them, although they are much fainter. Uranus http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Uranus2.jpg Voyager 2 http://jpcootes.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/voyager2.jpg Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun and is the third largest. It is an enormous 2,870,972,170 km away from the Sun (19.2 AUs). Uranus has the slowest rotation period of the gas giants at 17 hours and 15 minutes. The period of revolution for Uranus is 30,687 Earth days or approximately 84 Earth years! Uranus has 27 natural satellites orbiting it, the largest of which is Titania. Interesting Facts Uranus has only been visited by one spacecraft since being discovered. Voyager 2 paid it a short visit on its way to Neptune, and their aren't any plans to go back.

Uranus is the coldest planet. Even though Neptune is a lot farther from the Sun Uranus doesn’t have a hot core like most of the planets. In fact, Uranus absorbs more heat from the Sun than it produces.

Even though Uranus was discovered with a telescope, it is possible to see Uranus with an unaided eye. You just need a dark sky and know where to look. Neptune http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/Neptune_Full.jpg Neptune is the farhtest planet in our Solar System and is the smallest of the gas giants. Neptune has 13 known moons, six of which were discovered by Voyager 2. Neptune's period of rotation is 16 hours and 7 minutes. Its period of revolution though is an unfathomable 60,190 Earth days or about 165 Earth years! Neptune is 4,498,252,900km from the Sun (30.1 AUs). Voyager 2 http://img.bhs4.com/f6/7/f67b6000d625fb3248be441eaf85619c5c5c9984_large.jpg Interesting Facts Neptune's largest moon, Triton, is the coldest body in our solar system ever visited with surface temperatures at -235 degrees Celsius.

Neptune has the strongest winds in the Solar System with storms reaching up to 2,100 km per hour.

Neptune is the only planet in our Solar system invisible to the naked eye. This means that in order to see it, one would need the assistance of a telescope. The Kuiper Belt
And Oort Cloud http://blog.buko.net/gbu/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Kuiper-Belt-and-the-Clouds-of-Oort.jpg The Kuiper Belt is a disc shaped group of hundreds of thousands of icey bodies and comets. The Kuiper Belt is located just beyond Neptune and that is why the objects are sometimes called TMOs (transneptunian objects). Scientists believe that it is a group of reminents from the early formation of the universe. The Kuiper Belt is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old.

The Oort Cloud is a hypothisized spherical cloud of comets that lies at roughly 50,000 AUs from the sun. It is said that the outer edge of the Oort Cloud is the boundry of our Solar System and the length to which the Sun's gravity has effect. The outer Oort Cloud is loosely bound to the Solar System and is effected by the gravity of passing stars and even the Milky Way Galaxy. The Oort Cloud is believed to have formed closer to the Sun but pushed out by the larger planets. The first object to be described as a part of the inner Oort Cloud was "Sedna" in 2004 (offically know as 2003 VB12). Sedna is just slightly smaller than Pluto in size. Interesting Facts Pluto is the most well known object in the Kuiper belt and was discovered in 1930. The Kuiper Belt itself though wasn't discovered until 1992.

The Kuiper Belt is a big topic of intrest in modern day astronomy and the "New Horizens" satellite has been launch and is expected to arrive at Pluto in 2015. http://www.rsiphotos.com/images/photos/Comet_Hale-Bopp1.jpg http://www.bobthealien.co.uk/halleys.jpg Comets Hayley's Comet Comet Hale-Bopp Comets are cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust roughly the size of a small town. These comets originate in either the Kuiper Belt or the Oort Cloud. Comets have an eliptical orbit around the Sun ans use the Sun's gravity to sling them through the universe.

Halley's comet is the most well know and passes by the Earth every 76 years. Halley's comit is what is known as a short period comet because of its unusually fast orbit.

Comet Hale-Bopp was the most-seen comet of the 20th century. It was visible to the naked eye for a record 18 months. Unlike Halley's comet, Comet Hale-Bopp is a long term comet and will make its next appearence to Earth in the year 4385. Ceres Ceres is the smallest dwarf planet and the only one located in the inner Solar System. Even though Ceres is the smallest dwarf planet, it is the biggest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt and accounts for 1/3 of its mass. NASA sent a probe to explore Ceres with the name "Dawn". It is expected to arrive in 2015. Ceres is believed to be a piece of a planet that never formed between Jupiter and Mars and is expected to be 4.6 billion years old.

Interesting Facts:
Ceres was the first asteroid ever discovered and was found in 1801 well before Pluto and Neptune.

When Ceres was first discovered it was classified as a planet but later demoted to asteroid and later again promoted to dwarf planet. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Ceres_optimized.jpg/250px-Ceres_optimized.jpg photo taken by Hubble http://www.ivorytowermetaphysics.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/poor-pluto.jpg http://i.space.com/images/i/9226/iFF/SP_100204_pluto-VS.jpg?1303245635 Pluto photo by Hubble Messerger http://www.satnews.com/images_upload/1325430598/NASA_MESSENGER_sat.jpg Messenger Pluto is the second most massive dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the former 9th planet. It is located in the Kuiper Belt at about 39.5 AUs. Pluto was discovered in 1930 and stripped of its planetary status in 2006. Pluto like other objects in the Kuiper Belt is 4.6 Billion years old. Pluto is left over debris from the early formation of the unverse.

Interesting Facts:
Pluto's biggest moon Charon is big enough to be a dwarf planet but since it orbits Pluto it must be classified as a moon.

Early astronomers thought that Pluto could be the "Planet X" that was affecting Uranus' orbit along with Neptune. The first predictions for the size of Pluto were that it was about the size of the Earth. The End!
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