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Animal Farm

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Miss Stephenson

on 14 April 2016

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Transcript of Animal Farm

Animal Farm: REVISION
Agenda

1/ Plot
2/ Characters
3/ Themes/Symbols
4/ Exam structure

The Seven Commandments
Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
No animal shall wear clothes.
No animal shall sleep in a bed.
No animal shall drink alcohol.
No animal shall kill any other animal.
All animals are equal.

CHARACTERS
The characters in Animal Farm are representatives of The Soviet Union at that time. Although you DO NOT need to link to context in the exam, it is still important to remember which character represent who and why.
PLOT
Summarise Animal Farm in 10 bullet points (could be 1 bullet point per chapter...)
Extend!
Which bullet point/chapter was the most important? Justify your decision with a short response.

Central Characters
Old Major
Snowball
Napoleon
Squealer
Boxer
Mr Jones
Benjamin
1/ We know Old Major is an important character from the very beginning why?
1/ How do these change throughout the course of the book?

2/ What is the final commandment/s they are left to live by?

1. Who do these
characters
represent in
Animal Farm?
2. What does this tell us about how the story develop?
2/ The way the animals position themselves a the first meeting symbolises what?
3/ What is the turning point of Napoleon's leadership. When did we see the change?
TASK!
Compare and contrast Napoleon and Snowball. What techniques do they use in their struggle for power? Does Snowball represent a morally legitimate political alternative to the corrupt leadership of Napoleon?
Exam Structure
Question 1a)
will ask you what you discover about a specific character.

You will:
Brainstorm all you can recall about that character in question. Think noun phrases.
Read the extract for understanding.
Read the extract again, drawing out more noun phrases about the character whilst highlighting evidence.
Use inference phrases to explain/ explore x3/4.
Use Point / Evidence / Explain.
8 marks
Question 1b)

will ask you how language is used to present an idea/ theme/ setting.

You will:
Read the extract, focusing on the keywords in the question.
Highlight evidence that relates to the question, and which can demonstrate your understanding.
Annotate the extract with language, structure and form devices.
Use inference phrases to explain/ explore/ analyse x3/4.
Comment on the effect on the reader
12 marks
Exam Structure
Question 1c)
will ask you how to explore a theme using evidence.

You will:
Read the extract, focusing on the keywords in the question.
Highlight evidence that relates to the question, and which can demonstrate your understanding.
Annotate the extract with contextual information (What’s happening? Why?)
Use inference phrases to explain/ explore/ analyse x3/4.
Relate your analysis on the theme, the effect on the reader, and Orwell’s intentions.

Exam Structure
REMEMBER!
A clear statement about what the message is, immediately addressing the question.

Relevant use of quotation - not overlong.

Lots of detail supported by close analysis, to establish this complex point.

Exploration of the role of characterisation in the novel - here in relation to Boxer.

Use of appropriate technical terminology, but discussed, not just identified.

"Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.
"But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it because this land of ours is so poor that it
cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no!
The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance
to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it. This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep--and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It is summed up in a single word— Man. Man is the only real enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.


1. How is Old Major presented in his speech?

2. Comment on how language is used to create a tone of injustice. Find examples of:

1. Rule of three
2. Rhetorical question
3. Emotive language
4. hyperbole
5. repetition
6. imperatives

REMEMBER TO REREAD THE BOOK!
You will be asked to refer to another part of the novel in 1D so you need to know the book well!
SYMBOL #1
Animal Farm

Animal Farm, known at the beginning and the end of the novel as the Manor Farm, symbolizes Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule. But more generally, Animal Farm stands for any human society, be it capitalist, socialist, fascist, or communist. It possesses the internal structure of a nation, with a government (the pigs), a police force or army (the dogs), a working class (the other animals), and state holidays and rituals. Its location amid a number of hostile neighboring farms supports its symbolism as a political entity with diplomatic concerns.
SYMBOL #2
The Barn

The barn at Animal Farm, on whose outside walls the pigs paint the Seven Commandments and, later, their revisions, represents the collective memory of a modern nation. The many scenes in which the ruling-class pigs alter the principles of Animalism and in which the working-class animals puzzle over but accept these changes represent the way an institution in power can revise a community’s concept of history to bolster its control. If the working class believes history to lie on the side of their oppressors, they are less likely to question oppressive practices. Moreover, the oppressors, by revising their nation’s conception of its origins and development, gain control of the nation’s very identity, and the oppressed soon come to depend upon the authorities for their communal sense of self.
SYMBOL #3
The Windmill

The great windmill symbolizes the pigs’ manipulation of the other animals for their own gain. Despite the immediacy of the need for food and warmth, the pigs exploit Boxer and the other common animals by making them undertake backbreaking labor to build the windmill, which will ultimately earn the pigs more money and thus increase their power. The pigs’ declaration that Snowball is responsible for the windmill’s first collapse constitutes psychological manipulation, as it prevents the common animals from doubting the pigs’ abilities and unites them against a supposed enemy. The ultimate conversion of the windmill to commercial use is one more sign of the pigs’ betrayal of their fellow animals. From an allegorical point of view, the windmill represents the enormous modernization projects undertaken in Soviet Russia after the Russian Revolution.
THEME #1
Totalitarianism
George Orwell once wrote: "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been … against totalitarianism." Animal Farm is no exception. Totalitarianism is a form of government in which the state seeks to control every facet of life, from economics and politics to the each individual's ideas and beliefs. Different totalitarian states have different justifications for their rule. For instance,
Mr. Jones runs Manor Farm based on the idea that human domination of animals is the natural order of things, while Napoleon and the pigs run Animal Farm with the claim that they are fighting for animals against evil humans.
THEME #2
Revolution and Corruption
Animal Farm depicts a revolution in progress. Old Major gives the animals a new perspective on their situation under Mr. Jones, which leads them to envision a better future free of human exploitation. The revolution in Animal Farm, like all popular revolutions, arises out of a hope for a better future. At the time of the revolution, even the pigs are excited by and committed to the idea of universal animal equality.

So
what undermines the animal's revolution and transforms it into a totalitarian nightmare?
Animal Farm shows how the high ideals that fuel revolutions gradually give way to individual and class self-interest. Not even Napoleon planned to become a dictator before the revolution, but as his power grew, he took more and more until his power became absolute. Revolutions are corrupted in a slow process. Animal Farm portrays that process
THEME #3
Class Warfare
One of the main tenets of Animalism is that all animals are equal. But quite quickly the pigs begin to refer to themselves as "mindworkers" to distinguish themselves from the other animals, who are physical laborers. Over time, this sense of separation takes hold: the pigs begin to discourage their children from playing with the children of the other animals, and then establish themselves as absolute rulers of the "lesser" menial laborers. Animal Farm shows how differences in education and occupation lead to the development of class, which leads inevitably to class warfare, in which one class seeks to dominate the other.
Animal Farm suggests that the "mindworking" class will almost always prevail in this struggle.
THEME #4
Language as Power
Animal Farm shows how the minority in power uses vague language, propaganda, and misinformation to control the thoughts and beliefs of the majority in the lower classes. The pigs, especially Squealer, become extremely sophisticated and effective in their attempts to rewrite the rules of Animal Farm and Animalism. They even revise the farm's entire history in order to mislead the other animals into believing exactly what they say. By the end of the novel, the animals on the farm believe Snowball fought against them at the Battle of the Cowshed even though they saw him fight with them. They believe life on the farm has improved even though they have less food than ever, and that Napoleon has their best interests at heart even though he kills those who disagree with him.
As the only literate animals on the farm, the pigs maintain a monopoly on information that they use to build and hold their power.
Question 1c
is discussing the character from another part of the novel. It still needs to be within the relevant theme. e.g. if you are talking about Snowball as a leader in 1a and 1b, then for 1c you will need to find another example of this.
It is worth
16 marks
Full transcript